兪 莉 娜
- 日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
- vol.82, no.740, pp.2701-2711, 2017 (Released:2017-10-30)
This paper explores Rinzō, the wooden revolving bookshelf used for storing sutras in Buddhism temples. Although this particular type of small architecture has attracted a quite number of scholarly attentions, the importance of Rinzō either in architectural history or in social history has not been clearly clarified. Therefore, the paper used the typology method to figure out a new classification of the type of Rinzō between Japan and China, mainly focusing on the existing Rinzō examples and several architectural technic books. Based on the structure and shape characteristics, and the type ideas found in the ancient architectural books, three types of Rinzō in Japan and China are classified by the author. A type refers to the Rinzō of Yingzaofashi, which shows a separated structure of ‘Rin’ (revolving structure) and ‘Zō’ (outside cover imitating the real architecture), and is thought to be an early style traced to Tang dynasty. B type, the most popular Rinzō shape of the two countries, shows the unified shape of ‘Rin’ and ‘Zō’ which can be traced back to the Chinese North Song dynasty. Moreover, the B type Rinzō is classified into three phases: the Rinzō with eaves, Rinzō without eaves, and multi-story Rinzō. C type refers to the Rinzō with decorated middle column, which only can be found in Japan. The C type Rinzō is divided into two phases: the Rinzō with eaves and without eaves. Besides, based on the type classification, the authors take a brief look at the age and regional distinction of Japanese Rinzō. Before the 18th century, the Rinzō almost showed the type of B-I, and the erection of Rinzō was managed by the classes of nobility and the samurai. C type and II phase Rinzō occurred in 17th century. However, B-I type was still the mainstream style of Japanese Rinzō. After the 18th century, based on the publishing of “Obaku” version Tripitaka, Rinzō was swiftly spread all over the country. By this way, the property of Rinzō had been experienced a revolutionary process changing from ‘official’ into ‘folk’. When it comes to the 19th century (before the age of Meiji), the C-II type Rinzō had become the most famous type. Moreover, the Japanese Rinzō can be divided into four districts: the district of B type (Kinki area, Shikoku area, Chūgoku area and Kyūshū area), the district of C type (Kantō area and Tōhoku area), the district mixed with B and C type (Chūbu area). In conclusion, Rinzō, which was originated in China, showed separated type (A type) and unified type (B type) in Tang and Song dynasty, then the unified type Rinzō was introduced into Japan along with the introduction of Tripitaka and Zen Buddhism during the Japanese medieval period. After that, the development of Rinzō of the two countries each underwent independent process. All in all, Rinzō is not only proof of technical communication between Japan and China, but also an epitome of religious prosperity in public.