著者
岩田 会津
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.780, pp.665-674, 2021 (Released:2021-02-28)

This paper examines the formation process of the territories of villages in Kamakura in the Edo era, by analyzing “Nayose-cho,” a type of village cadaster of Ogigayatsu-mura, a village in Kamakura. After Tokugawa Ieyasu relocated to the Kanto district, he divided the field of Kamakura into a group of villages in 1591. However, since these villages were divided into multiple territories ruled by temples and shrines, the villages had not yet functioned as administrative units. In the case of Ogigayatsu-mura, the village encompassed the territories under the control of Tsurugaoka-hachimangu, Juhuku-ji, Jokomyo-ji, Eisho-ji, and Tatsumi-kojin. At that point, the land lots of Kamakura were registered in “Kenchi-cho,” a type of cadaster made by the landlords from which we cannot tell which village the lots registered in the kenchi-chos belonged to. It took a long time for the border of the villages began to gain significance. The administrative organizations of the villages were formed during the late 17th century, and the oldest book of nayose-chos in Ogigayatsu-mura was written in 1682. This means that people living in Ogigayatsu-mura had begun to make their nayose-chos to investigate the landownership in the village, as soon as the administrative organization of the village was formed. The village continued to use the nayose-cho of 1682 until at least 1763, by copying it and updating the landowners. Nayose-chos, made by the villagers, replaced the kenchi-chos, made by the landlords. Villagers in Kamakura knew the land ownership details through the nayose-chos. However, since the landlords still controlled their territory by collecting land tax, villages had not yet gained control of their land. Around 1800, the task of collecting land tax was taken over by the villagers from the landlords. In Ogigayatsu-mura, the Kan-nushi of Tsurugaoka-hachimangu, who was allotted a part of the territory under the shrine’s control, adopted this method. After the lawsuit of 1791 between the Kan-nushi and the villages in his territory, Kan-nushi left the collection of land tax to each village. Thereafter, the villagers began to make nayose-chos for each year to calculate total land tax and report it to the landlord. This means that the villagers themselves administered their territory instead of their lords. However, without Kan-nushi’s influence, the territories of Ogigayatsu-mura were still managed by its landlords directly. In these territories, nayose-chos were rarely made because it was not necessary for the villagers to understand the land ownership details. Therefore, Ogigayatsu-mura was ruled by many lords until the Meiji Restoration. In accordance with the Agechi-rei published in 1871, the new Meiji government was supposed to confiscate the territories of temples and shrines and integrate them into modern administrative villages. To put this policy into action, the land ownership of almost all the villages was examined. This was accomplished by studying the nayose-chos of the territories made around 1871. However, the land systems of the old territories still survived, although the government confiscated them. The Land Tax Reform of 1873 changed this situation. The old land systems were completely abolished, and the nayose-chos of all territories were merged into one cadaster. Finally, the borders marking the territories in Ogigayatsu-mura were removed, and the village was recognized as a single territory. I would like to thank Editage (www.editage.com) for English language editing.

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外部データベース (DOI)

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