- 地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
- vol.30, pp.13-26, 1978 (Released:2017-04-15)
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of disposal of feudal clan's forest, the utilization and ownership of them thereafter, and the formation of commual forest in the early period of Meiji era. The followings have been confirmed: (1) Tonogouchi Ohayashi(about 1,600 ha), one of the feudal clan's forest, was established in the upper area of the river Katsuura. Tokushima Prefecture. In the early period of Edo era the villagers of Sezu-mura lived on slash-and-bum cultivation and petty farming on sloping land, and had their commural forest. (2) The slash-and-burn cultivation in Sezu-mura, from Edo era to Meiji era, was very important for dependent peasants as well as independent ones. Comparatively low productivity of slash-and-burn cultivation here was one of the reasons why the clan forest was disposed as a whole to the lumberer (Mr. Nishioka) of Tokushima in the early Meiji era. If the slash-and-burn cultivation here had had high productivity, the clan forest should have almost become the possession of villagers. (3) In Awa clan, all of the feudal clan forest were disposed in 1869 before the abolition of clans and establishment of the prefecture. From 1869 to 1870, private forest which had been permitted to be possessed of private owners by Awa clan in Edo era, and communal forest were disposed by Awa clan. (4) Tonogouchi clan's forest was sold to the lumberer who was politically connected with Awa clan at the beginning of Meiji era. Only ten percent of the forest under discussion was sold to the officers of the nearby villages. Later on, during the middle Meiji era (1887-1893), the higher class of villagers bought the forest back from the lumberer. From 1897 to 1925, they sold it out. At the end of Meiji era (1911), Mr. Hara, a lumber merchant in Tokushima city bought it all. And then, in 1927, it came into possession Nagao lumbering industry. (5) In 1909, in order to develop vast natural forests and charcoal, and communal forest of Sezu-mura, Mr. Hara founded the railway through the Tonogouchi forests, for the first time in Tokushima Prefecture. Stimulated by this railway, the lumberers built more than seven sawmills in these villages, and turned natural forests into planted on in Taisho era. (6) Sezu communal forests (130 ha) which was established in clan's forest in Bunsei era (1818-1829) has remained, through the strong control of the community. Planted sedar trees and trees for charcoal in the communal forest were sold respectively to the lumberers and charcoal makers in the villages. Sedar trees were planted by the villagers and peasants of Ikumi-mura (Sesu-mura, Nogiri-mura, Kubo-mura and Kashihara-mura were united as Ikumi-mura in 1874).