- 地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
- vol.59, no.1, pp.26-46, 2004-01-28 (Released:2017-04-15)
In Japanese geographical studies, there were few perspectives to political process except for election studies. Especially studies of social movements have been disregarded from geographers. But political geographers in Anglophone countries tried to analyze for social movements as well as other political problems in 1990's. This study aimed at clarification to studies of social movements by geographers. Those discussions are mainly from sociological studies. In addition to this point, foreign geographical studies influenced to Japanese geographers on the debate of urban social movements and new social movements. At the first, sociological studies are objects in the discussion of social movement. In 1960's two-renewal concepts, which are the theory of new social movements and the resource mobilization theory were introduced. The reason why the new type of social movements arise is the old type of social movements, socialism or labor movement, had transited in renewal style because of the industrialization process and so on. Research points also changed. Thus a new wave of the theory of social movements that born in European and American countries introduced to Japanese sociology. Secondary, new urban sociology was begun by Castells (1977). He applied Marxist urban theory to urban question in Paris. This approach applied to other social movements and urban sociologists used its study method. The theory of urban social movements appeared on the discussion. Gradually sociological debates on social movement came to Japanese sociologist and foreign geographers. Thirdly the relation of social movements studies and geographers is examined. Radical geography is the first impression of social movements to them. Takeuchi (1980) mentioned that Bunge coped with community movement in his style and Harvey challenged Marxist approach to urban inequality. These studies are viewed the political attitudes of geographer at that time. As to Japanese geographer produced some social movement study, too. Next happening occurred in 1990's. Some Political geographers structured a geographical viewpoint to social movements. Smith (1994) dealt with social movements in the textbook of human geography. 0nly one paragraph was given on it. However Painter (1995) used one chapter for social movements study. He explained the theory of social movement and the appliance to experiential studies in geography. Agnew (1997) reviewed geographical studies on social movements. He gathered election studies with political movements and anti-military movement with social movements. Then case studies were showed by Routledge (1993) and Miller (2000). They take social movements with a geogaphical approach. It can be pointed out that those studies are influenced by the sociological theory of social movements. Geographical concepts were applied for actual social movements. That study has originality in geographical works. Lately Japanese geographers tried to study on the politics of place as same as social movements. They are environment, gender, modernization, urbanization, and pollution problems. Social movement studies are just getting to place on Japanese geographical society. It is expected that theoretical and practical study on social movements will develop.