著者
山﨑 貴子
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, pp.93-112, 2009-11-30 (Released:2015-06-03)
参考文献数
28

The purpose of this paper is to clarify changes over time of images of working women during the prewar period following World War I in Japan.I investigated a major women’s magazine (Fujin Kurabu). And, I examined how “ideal image of working women” described in the magazine had changed over time and how the images of working women were affected by the “good wife and wise mother” norm, which was prevailing before then.Working women at that time can be divided into two different types. One is “traditional working women” who were highly educated or skilled. They included teachers, doctors, and nurses. The other is “modern working women” who worked in the tertiary industry that had developed after World War I, and which did not require a highly educated or skilled labor force. The number of modern working women increased dramatically from the 1920s, and become the dominant pattern among working women. Many of these women, however, worked at low pay and had little chance of career promotions. At first, the modern working women were seen as second class workers in contrast to the traditional working women, who were seen as first class.The image of the traditional working women, who gained high status and fame, constituted the “ideal image of working women” in the early 1920s. The social trend toward the idea of women’s liberation encouraged this image. The relationship between the working women and the norm of “good wife and wise mother” was actively discussed in the magazine.On the other hand, it was considered ideal for modern working women, who could not be like the traditional working women, to achieve social promotion not through their jobs but through their job environment. That is, the modern working women gained increased opportunities for marriage in the workplace. Modern working women came to be seen as potential “good wives and wise mothers” and were comparable as an ideal with women who married after graduating from school without ever working. The idea also supported a continuous quantitative expansion of modern working women from the 1920s. As modern women came to occupy the majority of working women in the 1930s, the “ideal image of working women” in the magazine gradually changed from the traditional working woman to the modern working woman. The image of the modern working woman became incorporated into the norm of “good wife and wise mother.”

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「職業婦人は家庭の破壊者となる」と言われた約100年前。しかし今も家庭は存在し、それぞれが納得する在り方(共働きや専業主ふ)を選んでいる。名前も、変えるか変えないか、結婚する二人が選べたらいい。 https://t.co/o6bhs0PwE5 https://t.co/8aCD6v0vRp

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