著者
木村 祐子
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.5-24, 2006-12-10 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
5 1

Since the later half of the 1990s, lack of adaptability of children to the educational setting has been explained through the new medical category of “developmental disabilities.” In this paper, medical intervention is conceived of as “medicalization, ” and the educational setting is focused on and inspected. In particular, the paper focuses on “developmental disabilities” as a medical diagnosis characterized by uncertainty, situational dependence and feelings of resistance toward labeling, and clarifies how these characteristics are interpreted in the educational setting.Section 1 reviews previous studies that look critically at the elements of medicalization, pointing out the characteristics and problems of “developmental disabilities” as medicalization.(1) The elements of “developmental disabilities” are vague despite the fact that they are medical concepts, and consequently there is a lack of scientific grounds, standardized tests and treatment. This enables interpretation by a diverse range of knowledge.(2) These disabilities function as a form of “risk management.” This study dynamically analyzes how these medical diagnoses are interpreted in the educational setting, with the aim to approach the reality of medicalization.Section 2 summarizes the research method which was used in the interview research of nine teachers.Section 3 examines medicalization in children, first from the viewpoint of responsibility and the role and position of children. The viewpoint of medical treatment has made rapid advances through the intervention of institutionalized medicine. Medical labeling exempts parents and teachers from responsibility, based on the assumption that the problem is a “disability.” In this way, the children are obliged to play the “sick role.”Parents and teachers sometimes display feelings of rejection or resistance toward medical labeling. In addition, uncertainty regarding the cause of the “developmental disability” creates difficulties in medical practice. However, the feelings of rejection and the medical uncertainty can be minimized by medical practice and interpretation in the educational setting.

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@jiny3jiny34643 「病気という扱いにすることで、社会の中に位置づけること(医療化)」は、20世紀以降しばしば見られる話なのですよね。『狂人』という観念も比較的近代的ですし、『発達障害』の発見なんかも。 https://t.co/dFqjx3gUON
これは他の障害にもいえることだが、制度や社会が「不真面目」「努力不足」といった「本人の問題」として捉えずに 「症状」「特性」という「障害の問題」として捉えることで当事者が救われるなら、医療化は十分に有意義だといえるだろう。 https://t.co/KRCl7d1FZX
@HIRO_SHIRAISI 以前紹介した本の元の論文がネットにありました。 https://t.co/e42tqcH4Ul

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