- 認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
- vol.17, no.3, pp.459-473, 2010 (Released:2011-03-08)
This paper discusses musical activities as constructive process of cognition and presents a new approach to grasp whole phenomena crossing individual-organizational-social level of it. Musical performances can be understood as constructive process of cognition. In the creative process of music, musicians generate deviations which raise information quantity of musical communication to maximum level. Such deviations give non-referential musical meaning to musicians and audiences. During musical performance, especially in jazz improvisation, a generated deviation continually repeats cognitive negotiation with dominant schema, and renews the schema if the deviation can be recognized as a newly expanded variation. Modern jazz musicians construct their improvisations depending on the jazz musical theory of scale and chord progressions in analytical technique, on the other hand they construct deviations without any theoretical method and analytical technique. Such deviations are the essence of musical creation process, which can be generated only with constructive technique. Turning attention to upper structure, organizational and social level of musical activities also can be understood as constructive process of cognition. Leaders ingeniously coordinate heterogeneous talented members, strongly present future visions and concepts as well. Innovators strategically conduct cognitive negotiations between radicalism and contemporaneous to succeed in innovating style and mode of music and diffusing them all over the society. Therefore musical activities, not only individual or collective level but also organizational and social level, can be seen as constructive design process in which different levels are deeply intertwined.