- The Human Geographical Society of Japan
- 人文地理 (ISSN:00187216)
- vol.43, no.1, pp.5-25, 1991-02-28 (Released:2009-04-28)
Pnug-su (風水) is a kind of East Asian traditional geomancy. Literally it means wind and water, but in a strict sense its connotations are very profound. People selected building sites and burial grounds and also settlement sites from a geomantical point of view.It is generally said that location of Korean settlements has been strongly influenced by pung-su. In particular even capital location was selected by the pung-su method in the Koryo and Choson dynasties. Therefore it is necessary in studying Korean traditional settlement to understand pung-su. The influence of pung-su on settlements appears in the location of settlements and arrangement of buildings within them.We can identify three kinds of pung-su. One is the eum-teak pung-su (陰宅風水), the selection of burial grounds, the yang-taek pung-su (陽宅風水), the selection of building sites, and the yang-gi pung-su (陽基風水), the selection of settlement location.The purpose of pung-su is to seek human felicity by the help of ji-ryuk (地力), a composite of ground forces. It is thought that ground forces give good luck to people who select favourable sites for their building, settlements, or ancester's burial grounds. These ground forces come out as invisible saeng-gi (生気), streams of existence. And pung-su shows us a method to harness saeng-gi.According to Choi's study (1986), pung-su includes seven methods concerning mountain, water, and orientation. Using these methods, people could select favouable sites where they could tap the saeng-gi.Jin-san (鎮山) is a high mountain behind the favourable site according to the pung-su method. Generally jin-san was a mountain where the guardian spirit of the village lived. And it was also an important landmark for arrangement of buildings within the settlement. So many jin-san of settlements were recorded in Dong-guk-yo-ji-seung-ram (東国輿地勝覧), a topographical book of the Choson dynasty.The purpose of this paper is to unveil the actual influence of pung-su on the location of settlements and the arrangement of buildings within settlements in Korea. The author adopted Korean eup-settlements as the object of this study.Korean eup-settlements in the Choson dynasty were established by the government as local administrative centers. They were located under deep pung-su influence. Gwan-a (government office.), eup-sung (castle), hyang-gyo (national school) were arranged under the influence of pung-su as buildings within eup-settlements.The main results are follows:1. The influence of pung-su on the location of settlements is identified in the following points: Two thirds of eup-settlements are located on the so-called chang-pung teuk-su (蔵風得水) or bai-san rim-su (背山臨水) landforms which are ideal places for pung-su. Most of the eup-settlements are located at the foot of mountains and only on one side of rivers.2. The influence of pung-su on the arrangement of buildings within eup-settlements is found in the following facts. Important building like castles or goverment offices are located on a ridge line from the jin-san. And they are built at right angles to the line, keeping the jin-san behind.