- 社団法人 日本口腔外科学会
- 日本口腔外科学会雑誌 (ISSN:00215163)
- vol.56, no.8, pp.464-470, 2010-08-20 (Released:2013-10-31)
In humans over 120 human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been completely described. HPVs have also been classified as low and high risk HPV types based on the clinical behavior of the HPV infected tissues. HPV proteins, especially the oncoproteins E6 and E7 of the oncogenic HPVs, interact with different degrees of affinity, with host cell proteins to disturb the normal epithelial differentiation and apoptosis by stimulating cellular proliferation, DNA synthesis and inhibition of cell cycle regulators. The best characterized interactions so far are the interactions between E7 and pRb and E6 and p53. Continued and aberrant expression of the E6 and E7 genes of the high risk HPVs will lead to genomic instability which finally after accumulation of mutational events can result in malignant transformation. Persistent infection with high risk HPV increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma, while the low risk HPV may be associated with benign lesions. Also, HPV infections can be detected in the oral cavity and HPVs have been described as being associated with malignant lesions, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma and with benign lesions such as leukoplakia and oral papilloma. It is suggested that oral mucosa might serve as a reservoir of HPVs. Now, an inoculation of vaccine preventing HPV infection is performed, and the result begins to appear for the prevention of the cervical cancer. In addition, an improvement in the state of oral hygiene decreases the rate of HPV infection, and indicated that oral care may be an effective way to prevent HPV infections. The present conditions and the future prospects of the prevention and the treatment of HPV infections in the oral region are reported.