- Center for Academic Publications Japan
- Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (ISSN:03014800)
- vol.65, no.5, pp.383-389, 2019-10-31 (Released:2019-10-31)
The toxic catabolic intermediates of branched chain amino acids can cause insulin resistance, and are involved in different mechanisms in different metabolic tissues. In skeletal muscle, 3-hydroxy-isobutyrate produced by valine promotes skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake, resulting in the accumulation of incompletely oxidized lipids in skeletal muscle, causing skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In the liver, branched-chain α-keto acids decompose in large amounts, promote hepatic gluconeogenesis, and lead to the accumulation of multiple acylcarnitines, which damages the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, resulting in the accumulation of incomplete oxidation products, oxidative stress in mitochondria, and hepatic insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, the expression of branched-chain amino acid catabolic enzymes (branched-chain amino acid transaminase, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase) is reduced, resulting in an increased level of plasma branched-chain amino acids, thereby causing massive decomposition of branched-chain amino acids in tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver, and inducing insulin resistance. However, branched-chain amino acids, as a common nutritional supplement for athletes, do not induce insulin resistance. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that exercise can enhance the mitochondrial oxidative potential of branched-chain amino acids, alleviate or even eliminate the accumulation of branched-chain amino acid catabolic intermediates, and promotes branched-chain amino acids catabolism into beta-aminoisobutyric acid, increasing plasma beta-aminoisobutyric acid concentration, improving insulin resistance. This article reveals the mechanism of BCAA-induced insulin resistance and the relationship between exercise and BCAAs metabolism, adds a guarantee for the use of BCAAs, and provides a new explanation for the occurrence of diabetes and how exercise improves diabetes.