- The Japan Sociological Society
- 社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
- vol.4, no.1-2, pp.74-100, 1954-01-30 (Released:2009-10-20)
In this article, which is a part of a series of reports based on the results of a field research in Tokyo, the writers attempt to analyse the characteristics of the structure of social consciousness of a modern urban population in Japan. This analysis is based on attitude measurements using two scales ; one designed to measure the authoritarian tendency in personality structure which has been affected by the traditional Japanese value-attitude system and which played an important role as a psychological basis of Japanese fascism : the other is designed to measure politico-economic orientation based on a socialistic-nonsocialistic dichotomy. The various means scores of these two scales are compared statistically, for each occupational group, different age categories, educational levels and political party allegiances.The main findings are as follows : 1) As for occupational differences, students and industrial workers are the most socialistic groups in politicoeconomic orientation, but industrial workers reveal more authoritarian and traditional tendencies than students, who are the most non-authoritarian group. The artisan group is most authoritarian and more nonsocialistic. The artisan group reveals a somewhat similar pattern of consciousness to that of the small entrepreneurs and manegrerial and executive types who constitute the most anti-socialistic groups. These groups have played an important role as active psychological supporters of Japanese fascism in the World War II. The white-collar groups as a whole shows similar mean scores on both scales, but groups within the white-collar category differ in their characteristic consciousness.2) There is a positive correlation between authoritarian and non-socialistic attitudes and age. The higher the level of education, the more non-authoritarian and socialistic the sample becomes.3) As for the political party allegiance, the supporters of Jiyuto (Liberal Party) and Kaishinto (Progressive Party) are the most authoritarian and non-socialistic, the supporters of the Left Socialist Party are most nonauthoritarian and socialistic. The Right Socialist Party adherents are rather similar to the conservative party supporters.4) The writers computed the multiple regression equations to both scales in relation to the underlying sociological variables such as age and occupation in order to determine the degree of association between these variables and manifest attitudes. Though the multiple correlation coefficients are not very high, it is demonstrated that occupation and standard of living have been stronger determining factors in politico-economic orientation and age and educational levels stronger determining factors in relationship to authoritarian tendencies.