- 日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
- vol.59, pp.032-044, 2016 (Released:2017-04-03)
During the Second Sino-Japanese war (1937-1941), there was an expansion of discourse and practice of “School Meetings” (gakko jokai), a term that here encompasses “Pupil Meetings” and “Children’s Neighborhood Groups.” This paper explores the trend of “School Meetings” discourse and its significance as a new method of drilling and training.Specifically, this paper analyzes the formation and development of this discourse and practice by focusing on the “Federation for Citizen Disciplinary Education” (Kokumin Kun’iku Renmei) and the “Japan Young Teachers Association” (Nihon Seinen Kyoshidan).In December, 1940, the “Federation for Citizen Disciplinary Education” held a workshop, inviting pioneering practitioners and theorists of “Morals Education” (hotoku kyoiku), thereby directly absorbing their know-how and theory. Thereafter, within the Federation, the practises that encourage children’s “virtues and merits” through “School Meetings,” and emphasize approach to the children’s inner side with “responsibility and compassion” were increased.As for, the “Japan Young Teachers Association” developed the theories and practices of “School Meetings” through connections with policy strategists. Their methods emphasized having a “cooperative heart” and practicing “self-reflection” as well as the importance of “public service” and “drilling.”“School Meetings” generated from the two “breeding grounds” both evoked “spontaneity” and “initiative” through “self-reflection” while removing self-assertion. This was inextricably linked to stifling feelings of children who were not committed themselves to drilling. The movement may be said to have exposed the limits of pedagogy.