- 教育哲学研究 (ISSN:03873153)
- vol.1967, no.16, pp.1-14, 1967-10-10 (Released:2009-09-04)
The expansion of educational opportunities and the increase of interest in education in recent years is called “the education explosion”. Some of the underlying causes, particularly in regard to upper secondary education will be described below.The first factor explaining the unprecedented growth of education is the democratization of education. As a result of the efforts of UNESCO huge programs for extending primary education to all people regardless of differences of race, sex, religion, political, economic or social standing were initiated among the developing nations. To provide teachers for primary schools, secondary schools were needed even before primary education could get a start in such countries. Besides, democratization of education also affected the development of secondary education in advanced nations.In England the movement toward the Comprehensive School may be considered a typical case. To realise better equal educational opportunity the “tripartite” system of grammar school, technical school and “modern school” is to be replaced by this new type of school. It is comprehensive in the sense that it comprises various opportunities to develop particular trends of intelligence.In the USA till about 1957, when Russia launched her first satellite, the emphasis in the United States was very much on quantative expansion. As a consequence, the United States has the highest relative enrolment in higher education as well as in secondary education. But the scientific progress in other countries outside the USA seems to prove that creating opportunities for all in education is only one aspect of democratization. The tendency now is rather to stress the point that a proper care for the gifted, for the elite, is equally important.At about the same time when re-thinking started in the USA, West Germany also came forth with new and drastic plans for reforming the school system. The most basic of these were the Rahmenplan (1957), the Bremenplan (1960) find courses suited to their particular ability. In Japan a more sound philosophy of life and social philosophy is needed. In France, compulsory education was extended to ten years, but at the proper time the pupils are sifted through a process of observation and channeled int ovarious lines. In Japan, most certainly, such measures would be labelled undemocratic. What is lacking in Japan is a sense for proper appreciation of various types of ability and in connection with this a proper philosophy of occupation. Most important, however, is the realization that all types of work in a society, physical as well as spiritual, really possess the same intrinsic value.