著者
井川 充雄
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, pp.21-38, 2010-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
29

In Japan, public opinion survey has been considered to be introduced from the United States as a tool indispensable to democracy. Such a view has been inherited in academic circles as well as in actual society for a long time that public opinion surveys are conducted in order to make the voice of the people as political subjects reflect in politics. And historical studies on public opinion survey have tended to take up development of survey methodology mainly. Some public opinion surveys, however, do not remain in that category. The purpose of this paper is, taking up public opinion surveys by foreign governments, to make clear the political nature which the social technology of public opinion surveys originally has. USIA (United States Information Agency) made public opinion surveys in Japan in the 1950s. Since these surveys have been strictly confidential for a long time, there is almost no opportunity for ordinary people to know them. Then, this paper attempts to describe the purpose or process of the public opinion surveys which USIA conducted in Japan those days. After it was established by the Eisenhower Administration in August, 1953, USIA strengthened investigation section and began to conduct various public opinion surveys in spite of State Department's criticism. USIA assigned research officers under PAO (Public Affairs Officer). The research officer has been assigned in Japan in October, 1955. USIA conducted various surveys, for example, "Public Opinion Barometer" surveys, under the research officer's directions in Japan. USIA thought that a cold war was a war which acquired "man's heart" and persuaded foreign people. It conducted "Barometer" surveys which measured opinions, image of America, and attitudes of foreign peoples in order to persuade them. Therefore, the public opinion surveys have constituted USIA's strategy of "Public Diplomacy", or propaganda activities, to foreign countries.

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「世論調査の回答者は,決して政治的主体としての主権者ではなく,宣伝にさらされ,説得され,効果を測定され,操作される客体に他ならない。このように考えれば,世論調査という社会的な技法が,極めて政治性を帯びていることがわかる」 https://t.co/QuZzTI3x1n
「中央調査社は,1954 年9月に,時事通信社調査室を主体とし,国立世論調査所の機能を引き継いで,総理府認可の社団法人として設立された調査会社である」 https://t.co/B0Mm6om9Re

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