著者
石田 晴男
出版者
公益財団法人 史学会
雑誌
史学雑誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, no.9, pp.1423-1463,1558-, 1986-09-20 (Released:2017-11-29)

This paper considers the characteristics of the Koga Gunchuso (甲賀「郡中惣」) by studying the movements of the Yamanaka (山中) clans during the Sengoku period. This movement has been regarded by scholars as a process of localization. The Yamanaka, however, were gradually deepening their relations with the Hosokawa (細川) clan since Hosokawa Sumimoto (細川澄元) relied on their support in l507 (Eisho 永正 4). Consequently the Yamanaka clan became the vassals (Uchishu 内衆) of Hosokawa Harumoto (細川晴元) during the Tenbun (天文) era (1532-55) and was appointed as adjutant to the chief constable (Shugodai 守護代) of Kake-gun (闕郡) in Settu (摂津) province. From the Nanboku-cho period, when clan leadership rights (Soryo-shiki 惣領職) were divided in two, up until the Sengoku period, there existed within the Yamanaka clan a condition known as Ryosoryo (両惣領 two clan heads). From the beginning this pair of Soryos (惣領) had been house vassals (Gokenin 御家人) of the Muromachi-bakufu (室町幕府). The Yamanaka's advance into Kake-gun was made by this pair of Soryos, not by any alliance organizations as the "Domyochu" (同名中) or the "Sanpochu" (三方中). In other words, only the Yamanaka clan advanced into Kake-gun, and concerning its rule over the area, the authority of the two Soryos was clearly delineated from that of common clan members (Shoshi 庶子). The "Domyochu" was not organized until after 1549 (Tenbun 18) when Hosokawa Harumoto was driven away by Miyoshi Chokei (三好長慶) and the Yamanaka clan lost Kake-gun. The "Domyochu" was not an organization in which the Soryo and Shoshi were tied together in relationships of equality. Rather it was an organization in which Shoshi were gathered under the Soryo and while it did restrain the power of the Soryo and it was included in their authority as clan heads. The "Sanpochu" was organized in accordance with a plan for forming a strong bond between the Soryos of the Yamanaka, Ban (伴), and Minobe (美濃部) clans in order to cope with the critical condition of the time. However there are no source materials showing other cases in which the members of Gunchuso gathered and organized a group containing the concept of "Kata" (方), like in the "Sanpochu". Therefore the "Sanpochu" can be considered to be an exception and to be equivalent to the "Domyochu" of other clans. The "law" established by the mutual consent of the "Domyochu" and "Sanpochu" should be considered to be a temporary law formed in crisis rather than a condification of the long-standing regional customs. Accordingly this "law" should be considered to be an expression of the dangers inherent in the local lord's domination. The "Gunchuso" was an alliance group formed by the Soryos of each member clan which took part in the "Domyochu", and was an organization of the lord class to facilitate the collection of the original rice tax (honnengu 本年貢). Seven out of the twelve identified members of the "Gunchuso" besides the Yamanaka are recorded clearly in historical materials. According to these materials, they were vassals (either Hokoshu ((奉公衆)) or Gokenin) of the Muromachi-bakufu. "Gunchuso" was a combination of these present or former Bakufu vassals not including the followers of the Rokkaku (六角) clan. "Gunchuso" was organized at about the beginning of the Eiroku (永禄) era (1558-70) to be the fighting force against the Miyoshi (三好). At first it was not called "Gunchu" (郡中). Only after Eiroku 11, when the Rokkaku was driven away from Kannonji (観音寺) Castle, did it come to be called "Gunchu". In those days the Rokkaku could not rule Koga-gun any longer without the help of "Gunchuso". In other words, "Gunchuso" neither excluded the power of Shugo (守護) nor established its own administrative power. Under the domination(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

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@Borodobro 細川人脈で見える山中氏については論文ありますよ。PDF公開もされているので見ておいて損はないかと。すでにご存知ならすみませんがhttps://t.co/SEYVNHN9X5
近江の山中氏、ちょいちょい名前見かけるので詳しく知れるものがないかと思ってたら、既にこんな論文があったらしい J-STAGE Articles - 両山中氏と甲賀「郡中惣」 https://t.co/9NQ16KBR25

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