- ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
- vol.46, no.3, pp.127-143,219, 2002-02-28 (Released:2016-11-02)
In this paper, I examine strategies which were used to adjust conflicts between Wa (和, Japanese style) and Yô (洋, Western style) in the discourse on manners. This research helps illuminate the character of Japanese modernization and "civilization". My research covers the period from the Meiji Restoration to the end of World War II. (The simple dichotomy of Wa and Yô is adopted since it can be seen in the discourse on manners in this period.) 4 strategies are examined: "A. Elimination Strategy I ――Westernization――", "B. Separation Strategy", "C. Elimination Strategy II――return to 'Japan'――", and "D. Reconciliation (via a third factor) Strategy". Among those strategies, I pay particular attention to the "D. Reconciliation (via a third factor) Strategy". This strategy distinguishes "civilization" and "westernization", judges "Japanese" and "Western" manners by means of "universal" criteria, and guides them towards reconciliation. This strategy makes it possible to claim that "essentially, East and West are in harmony" or that they compete in regard to "universal" criteria. However, the claim that "originally, Japan was also a civilized nation" and the respect for "rationality" and "hygiene" seen in the "D. Reconciliation (via a third factor) Strategy" were modeled on concepts and ideas brought from "the West". Therefore, one can view the "D. Reconciliation (via a third factor) Strategy" as a mimicry of "A. Elimination Strategy I――Westernization――". This analysis leads to the conclusion that Westernization creeps into Japanese "civilization", despite seeming reconciliation. This point was not grasped by the well known harmonizing theories, such as Wakonyousai (和魂洋才, Japanese spirit and Western knowledge).