- スポーツとジェンダー研究 (ISSN:13482157)
- vol.14, pp.121-133, 2016 (Released:2017-04-25)
The topic of equality and fairness in sports rules can be debated from a variety of perspectives. Accordingly, this research seeks to analyze the various theories regarding separate events for men and women discussed by sports philosophers and sports ethicists and proposes the use of a handicapping method. Based on the analysis of theories, it can be concluded that separate events for men and women is currently accepted by sports philosophers and sports ethicists. If a system that could provide both equality of opportunity and equality of results in sports were created, competitors who put in the greatest effort or who were lucky would likely win. The method of achieving this is handicapping or sports standardization.
Paul Weiss, a sports philosopher, explains the effects as follows: “Handicaps are imposed so that even if weight, sex, or experience are different, a better competitor can compete equally against a weaker competitor. This imposes a restriction on the better competitor so that he/she is at the same level as others while allowing better conditions or a higher score for the weaker competitor, providing an opportunity to beat a superior athlete on equal terms.” Weiss indicates that the intention of sports standardization is not to encourage participation in sports by more people by making it possible for anyone to win, but rather to provide opportunities for each individual to learn what they can achieve by overcoming limitations such as weight, sex, and experience.
Handicapped sports recognize differences in birth, sex, background, competitive ability, values, and so on without eliminating the reasons for the individual differences and create a place for competition. When individuals recognize one another, society as a whole become stronger. The elimination of gender from sports that use handicaps has particular significance in disseminating the strengthening of society itself from the world of sports.