- 一般社団法人 日本機械学会
- 日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
- vol.83, no.856, pp.17-00337-17-00337, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
The integrity of railway axles is a critical aspect for ensuring the safety of a railway system. Therefore, non-destructive inspections such as ultrasonic testing and magnetic particle testing are conducted periodically. Some railway operators conduct ultrasonic tests directly on axles mounted on the train. However, the axles have to be disassembled for conducting magnetic particle testing. In the present study, the effects of variable amplitude stress acting on cracks and axle bending stress during ultrasonic test on ultrasonic response are discussed. An ultrasonic test was conducted using a full-scale axle specimen that had fatigue cracks and no artificial notches. The ultrasonic response was evaluated for the cracks whose lengths were 10 mm, 16 mm, and 19 mm. Under an unloaded condition, the ultrasonic response for the 16-mm-long and 19-mm-long cracks was approximately 4 or 7 times higher than that for the 10-mm-long crack, although the cross-sectional area of each of these cracks was approximately 2.5 or 3.5 times larger than that of the 10-mm-long crack. The obtained results indicate that the contribution of the reflection area to the ultrasonic response under a variable amplitude stress differs from that under a constant stress condition. Moreover, the influence of axle bending stress ranging between -50 MPa to +47 MPa on the ultrasonic response was investigated. A higher bending stress led to a higher ultrasonic response. However, the decreasing rate of ultrasonic response caused under compressive stress was lower than the increasing rate under tensile stress. For example, the ultrasonic response was approximately 2 dB lower than that under the unloaded condition at a compressive stress of -30 MPa; however, the ultrasonic response showed an increment of approximately 4 dB at a tensile stress of 30 MPa. A similar trend was observed in the crack of each length. The results denote that the crack position influences the precision of crack detection in ultrasonic inspection. However, considering that the maximum static bending stress of axles used in Japan is 30 MPa, its effect on inservice axle inspection is negligible.