- 公益社団法人 日本薬学会
- YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
- vol.132, no.3, pp.301-310, 2012 (Released:2012-03-01)
Living organisms eliminate foreign low-antigenic substances, such as drugs and environmental pollutants, by detoxification mediated by metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP). We have examined the possible regulation of CYP expression by enteric bacteria. Cyp mRNA expression levels, Cyp3a protein expression level, and the activity of Cyp3a in hepatic microsomal fractions were compared in germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. We evaluated hepatic Cyp3a11 mRNA expression levels and Cyp3a metabolic activity in GF and SPF mice after five days of antibiotic administration. The fecal levels of lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria and hepatic taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) were also measured. Cyp mRNA expression levels, Cyp3a protein expression level, and the activity of Cyp3a in SPF mice were higher than those in GF mice, indicating that enteric bacteria increases hepatic Cyp3a expression. The effects of enteric bacteria-reducing antibiotics on Cyp3a expression were examined. We observed that decreasing enteric bacteria with antibiotics in SPF mice caused a significant decrease in the hepatic Cyp3a11 mRNA expression, TLCA, and fecal LCA-producing bacteria compared to the group that did not receive antibiotics. No change in Cyp3a11 expression was observed in GF mice that were treated with antibiotics. Administration of LCA to GF mice showed an increase in Cyp3a11 expression similar to that of SPF mice. The enzymes of the enteric bacteria are believed to metabolize and detoxify drugs by either reduction or hydrolysis. The results of this study indicate that changes in enteric bacteria may alter the expression and activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and pharmacokinetics. Therefore, enteric bacteria should be closely monitored to ensure the safe use of drugs.