- 哲学 (ISSN:03873358)
- vol.2018, no.69, pp.21-31, 2018-04-01 (Released:2018-08-01)
This paper examines the problem of harassments in higher education from the
perspective of Iris Marion Young’s social connection model of responsibility and
suggests the problem as results of structural injustice.
The first section reviews Young’s model of responsibility and sheds light on
three features: (1) it imposes responsibility on all actors involved in structure that
produces unjust outcome, (2) it sees responsibility as forward-looking and imposes
this responsibility on all actors as shared responsibility, and (3) all actors are demanded
to engage in collective actions to make unjust structures less unjust.
The second section applies Young’s model of responsibility to sexual harassments
in higher education institutions. A hypothetical character of a female university lecturer
is employed to show how in a gendered sexist society sexual harassments could
occur in university setting where no single actor can be blamed for the unjust result.
The third section points out one problematic feature of Young’s model of responsibility.
Young’s idea of shared responsibility is useful to set the problem of
sexual harassments as our collective problem, but it gives insufficient attention to
capabilities of victims of unjust structures.
The forth section discusses the question of capability to responsibility. Although
Young suggests that victims share responsibility at least to criticize unjust
structure, they generally lack capabilities to do so due to the gendered sexist society.
On the other hand, Young denies the idea of blaming non-victims, even when
they have capabilities to reproduce such structures, for the sake of cooperative motivations.
This paper argues that Young’s model should take capabilities of victims
into account so that it does not allow a counter-argument that “no voices raised, no
harassment done”, while admitting that in certain cases we cannot practically blame
non-victims of unjust structure.
The fifth section suggests a sort of “self-investigating research project” as part
of taking shared responsibility where individual actors take turns to reflect upon
one’s own positions and actions and then present one’s report to others in meetings.
This project seems fit into the university setting as a way for sharing responsibility
for achieving justice.