著者
酒居 敬一 光成 滋生 成田 剛 石田 計 藤井 寛 庄司 信利
雑誌
情報処理学会論文誌 (ISSN:18827764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.4, pp.1028-1038, 2002-04-15

近年の汎用パーソナルコンピュータに多く使われているIA-32プロセッサは過去との互換性のために命令体系はCISC的である.しかし内部動作はRISCマイクロ命令への変換,ハイパーパイプライン,アウトオブオーダ,などRISC的アーキテクチャが多数取り入れられている.さらにSIMD的演算命令の搭載によりデータ並列処理を実現している.とはいえその新しい機構に応じたコードを生成するコンパイラはまだまだ少数であり,また対応していたとしてもコンパイラ独自の拡張C言語による記述が必要であることが多い.そのため通常のC言語による記述を主体としたベンチマークではプロセッサの正当な評価を行いにくい.そこで我々は実用的なアプリケーションとしてMP3エンコーダを選択しコード全般にわたってアセンブリ言語による最適化処理を行った.その結果C言語によるコードに対し2倍から3倍の高速化を達成した.
著者
島 一則 藤村 正司
出版者
国立大学法人 東京大学大学院教育学研究科 大学経営・政策コース
雑誌
大学経営政策研究 (ISSN:21859701)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.23-36, 2014 (Released:2022-04-28)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1

In this paper, we demonstrate that graduate students received higher salaries than undergraduates in Japan, using a large data sample. In addition, we show that graduate students have a more successful university educational experience, assess the validity of university education higher, and invest in self-learning after graduation from university or graduate school more than undergraduate students. Further, we indicate that successful university educational experience, assessing the validity of university education higher, and investing in self-learning aftergraduation partially contribute to raising their earnings.
著者
桑山 隆志 横田 成彬 可児 毅 村上 尚史 松井 慶太 中村 清吾
出版者
日本緩和医療学会
雑誌
Palliative Care Research (ISSN:18805302)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.11-18, 2023 (Released:2023-01-27)
参考文献数
12

【目的】メトロニダゾールゲル(ロゼックス®ゲル0.75%:以下,本剤)について,長期使用時を含む使用実態下の安全性と有効性に関する情報を収集する目的で使用成績調査を実施した.【方法】がん性皮膚潰瘍部位の殺菌・臭気の軽減のために本剤を初めて使用する患者を中央登録方式にて登録した.観察期間は最長1年とした.【結果】安全性解析対象は301例であった.副作用発現割合は3.32%(10/301例)で,すべて非重篤であった.全般改善割合は73.7%(205/278例)であった.最終観察時の医師評価によるにおい改善割合は80.2%(203/253例)で,患者の治療満足割合は70.1%(82/117例)であった.【結論】使用実態下において,本剤ががん性皮膚潰瘍部位の殺菌・臭気の軽減に対し,安全かつ有効な治療薬であるとともに,本剤の使用により,患者の高い治療満足度が得られることが明らかとなった.
著者
小泉 陽介 平岡 知子 西山 明 山領 豪 古本 朗嗣
出版者
一般社団法人 日本感染症学会
雑誌
感染症学雑誌 (ISSN:03875911)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, no.6, pp.230-235, 2022-11-20 (Released:2022-11-21)
参考文献数
19

A 67-year-old Japanese woman with a history of contact with a COVID-19 patient presented with a one-day history of fever, malaise, and dyspnea, and was hospitalized with a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 LAMP. Chest CT revealed bilateral patchy infiltrates. The patient was treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone and supplemental oxygen supplied via a nasal cannula. The supplemental oxygen therapy was continued for 6 days, and the drug administration was completed on the 10th day of hospitalization. The patient was then scheduled to be discharged, when she developed severe hyponatremia with a serum Na level of 110 mEq/L, but no consciousness disorder.The patient was diagnosed as having SIADH after several examinations suggesting higher levels of secretion of antidiuretic hormone, with a higher specific gravity of the urine than that of the serum, in addition to evidence of normal functioning of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands, and of the liver and kidneys. Whole-body CT showed no evidence of any tumors. The hospitalization was extended for correcting the serum sodium levels by restriction of water intake. It was assumed that the SIADH was caused by COVID-19, presumably by the elevated serum IL-6 levels inducing secretion of ADH, similar to the phenomenon reported in other inflammatory diseases associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels.COVID-19 could lead to SIADH due of unresolved systemic inflammation even in the absence of worsening of the findings of chest imaging after the completion of antiviral treatments. Further studies are required to evaluate the correlation between the inflammatory state (e.g., serum concentration of IL-6) and serum ADH level causing hyponatremia during the clinical course of COVID-19.
著者
桑原 真人 クワバラ マサト Masato Kuwabara
雑誌
産研論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.155-159, 1993-12-25
著者
井上 佳奈 山本 佑実 菅村 玄二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.2, pp.133-143, 2016 (Released:2016-07-08)
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
1 1

We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological “resetter/rebooter.” Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief — suggesting that a “sigh of refresh” is a voluntary but a “sigh of relief” is an involuntary response.
著者
三宅 隆
出版者
公益社団法人 応用物理学会
雑誌
応用物理 (ISSN:03698009)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, no.2, pp.68-73, 2023-02-01 (Released:2023-02-01)
参考文献数
42

高性能永久磁石はハードディスク,電動車の駆動モータ,風力発電機などに用いられ,われわれの生活に欠かすことができない材料である.近年,小型ロボットやドローンなど用途が多様化するとともに使用量が増加し,磁石開発の世界的な競争が続いている.本稿では,まず永久磁石開発の歴史を振り返り,最強磁石であるネオジム磁石の発明を電子論の立場から再検討する.続いて,磁石材料開発に計算科学やデータ科学がどう利用されているか紹介する.
著者
川上 直秋
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.91, no.1, pp.23-33, 2020 (Released:2020-04-25)
参考文献数
25

Drawing on the literature about approach-avoidance behavior, this study tested whether asymmetries in the ways people interact with their smartphones using flick input (an input method based on swiping a key in a certain direction to produce the desired letter) influence their evaluations of the emotional valence of words. Specifically, a downward flick is regarded as an approach behavior in that the movement of a finger is directed toward the self, while an upward flick is regarded as avoidance behavior in that the movement is directed away from the self. In five studies, the predicted relationship between emotional valence and direction of finger movement on the smartphone was observed for nonwords and existing words. On average, words with more downward flick letters were rated as more positive in valence than words with more upward flick letters (hereafter referred to as the Flick effect). Of note, the Flick effect was not found among people who have never owned a smartphone, suggesting that smartphone use with flick input shapes the meaning of words.
著者
市川 一宏 室田 信一 原田 正樹 小松 理佐子 妻鹿 ふみ子 菱沼 幹男 永田 祐 高野 和良 渋谷 篤男 佐甲 学 秋貞 由美子
出版者
ルーテル学院大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2015-04-01

地域福祉の実践と理論を結ぶことを目的に、地域福祉政策において先駆的な取り組みを展開している「東京都三鷹市」「長野県茅野市」「宮崎県都城市」という3 つのフィールドの比較研究をもとに、それぞれの地域で地域福祉が形成されていく過程を明らかにし、その裏付けになった理論的背景を踏まえつつ、地域福祉の発展型モデルを提示した。さらに、その結果を踏まえ、包括的支援体制の構築の必要性を検討し、2017年9月に厚生労働省がまとめた「最終とりまとめ」における「地域における住民主体の課題解決力強化・相談支援体制のあり方に関する検討会」での検討内容と改正された社会福祉法を検証し、包括的支援体制をについて検証した。
著者
脇村 孝平
出版者
一般財団法人 アジア政経学会
雑誌
アジア研究 (ISSN:00449237)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.4, pp.41-57, 2021-10-31 (Released:2021-11-16)
参考文献数
22

We are still suffering from the disaster of COVID-19. A look into the experience of the cholera pandemic during the 19th-century would give us a great deal of insight on how to deal with the existing crisis. The cholera pandemic was a literal “pandemic” that swept the world six times in the 19th century. It was an unparalleled plague that had a profound effect on the progress of history. As it is well known, cholera was “endemic” to the Bengal region of India. However, for some reason, it became malignant and spread not only in India, but throughout the world, resulting in it becoming a pandemic. By reviewing the discussions of the International Sanitary Conferences, which began in 1851, this paper found fierce disagreements over how the European countries at the time prevented the spread of cholera from the east. First, we take up the controversy concerning the implementation of maritime quarantine during the cholera pandemic, meaning, the dilemma that arose between the epidemic prevention measures and economic activity. This issue translated to there being a conflict between continental European countries (such as France), which insisted on a strict quarantine measure, and Britain, which insisted on a loose quarantine measure called “medical inspection” because of free trade. Second, we focus on the issues surrounding the Red Sea route. There were growing concerns that the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca would result in the spread of cholera to Europe, especially through this route. There were conflicts between the continental European countries (such as France), which insisted on discriminatory and strict quarantine measures against Muslim pilgrims in the Red Sea, and Britain, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, and Persia, who opposed the continental European countries. The conflicts were so fierce from the 1st (1851) International Sanitary Conference to the 6th (1885) one that they did not see any agreement in the form of concluding an International Sanitary Convention. However, since the 7th conference (1892), consensus building started progressing gradually, and finally, during the 11th (1903) conference, it became possible to conclude an international sanitary convention in a cohesive manner. The international standard for the quarantine system, embodied in the International Sanitary Convention ratified in 1904, made a clear distinction between the medical inspection carried out in European waters and the quarantine implemented in the Red Sea. In the Red Sea in particular, the pilgrims to Mecca were subjected to “discriminatory treatment”. Thus, it is fair to say that it was a clear case of “double standards” and “Eurocentrism.” Finally, I would like to make the following statement: although hegemonic Britain was characterized by an “ethnocentric” diplomatic stance, it may also be possible to make a certain positive evaluation that it adhered to “realism.”
著者
横手 直美 玉田 敦子
出版者
医学書院
巻号頁・発行日
pp.52-56, 2019-01-25

はじめに 日本の無痛分娩の割合は欧米の医療先進諸国と比べて低いが,その割合は2008年の2.6%(厚労省研究班)から2016年は5.2%(日本産婦人科医会)と2倍に増加している。 日本産婦人科医会は,2017年8月に「無痛分娩を提供する施設では,器械分娩や分娩時出血異常,麻酔合併症などに適切に対応できる体制を整える」1)という提言を出した。しかし,従来の日本の助産教育は正常分娩の介助に主眼があり,基礎教育のテキスト等では無痛分娩に関する歴史的背景やケアの具体的な指針は見受けられない。 筆者らは,臨床現場の助産師らがジレンマや葛藤を抱きながらも,日々の助産実践を通して,安全と快適な助産ケアを探究している様子から,無痛分娩の先進国フランスの助産ケアがヒントになるのではないかと考え,パリの助産師学校と大規模産院の視察を行った。
著者
Masahiko Inoue Naho Inoue Keita Nakatani Yoko Shikibu
出版者
Tottori University Medical Press
雑誌
Yonago Acta Medica (ISSN:13468049)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2023.02.012, (Released:2023-01-28)
参考文献数
32

Background Parent training (PT) is a promising support for improving parents’ mental health, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In recent years, there has been an increase in online PT studies. We developed a prototype for the on-demand PT. In this study, we examined changes in the program implementation, accomplishment of homework, parents’ mental health, and behavior of children among parents of children with ASD.Methods This study participated two mothers of children with ASD. The first was the mother of a child aged three years and eight months with ASD and intellectual disability; the second was the mother of a child aged four years and 5 months who had a diagnosis of ASD. An on-demand PT consisting of six sessions was provided online. The program was structured so that the participants watched lecture videos for each session, answered a confirmation test, and submitted homework to advance to the next session. Feedback for the submitted homework and questions was provided via email by the researchers.Results Both participants watched the program on a schedule for all sessions and submitted all tests and homework assignments. The percentage of correct responses to the tests per session was 100% for both participants. Two of the four target behaviors of the children changed significantly. Pre- and post-questionnaires also showed improvements in the scores of parental depression and parenting stress, as well as overall behavior of the child.Conclusion The program in this study was developed as a prototype for on-demand PT, and two case studies showed positive results. Although this program was on-demand, changes in parent and child behaviors were confirmed by the scale and actual behavior records. Further demonstration is needed to increase the number of cases and to compare the results between the groups.
著者
佐藤 友哉 田中 恒彦 前田 駿太
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.94.21405, (Released:2023-02-01)
参考文献数
84

The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on exposure therapy based on an inhibitory learning approach and to comprehensively summarize the accumulation of studies on this approach and its effectiveness. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. A screening and eligibility assessment identified 59 articles on exposure therapy based on the inhibitory learning approach. The literature was categorized according to the inhibitory learning approach’s specific strategies, and the intervention’s effects were reviewed. As a result of the overview, it became clear that there was an insufficient number of studies for each study, except for those pertaining to the use of partial agonists of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, although 33 of the 59 studies showed intervention effects, the breakdown of the studies was skewed. Therefore, it is thought that the inhibitory learning approach is not adequately effective, and further research data and research methods should be devised in the future.
著者
下司 忠大 吉野 伸哉 小塩 真司
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.94.21234, (Released:2023-02-01)
参考文献数
44

The purpose of this study is to translate the Courage Measure (CM) into Japanese and to examine the validity of the Japanese version of the CM (CM-J). Study 1 (N = 1,000) showed that the CM-J has a one-factor structure similar to previous studies and that it has sufficient measurement accuracy and good reliability based on item response theory. Study 2 (N = 366) confirmed the convergent and criterion-related validity of the CM-J in relation to optimism, pessimism, subjective well-being, Big Five personality traits, and the behavioral indicator. Study 3 (N = 200) confirmed the convergent validity of the CM-J in relation to resilience, bravery, authenticity, and grit. The CM-J is useful to the research of individual differences in courage and, in the future, for screening the clients who potentially drop out in exposure therapy.