著者
國原 美佐子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.27-53, 1994-03-16

The purpose of this paper is to consider the establishment of the tosenbugyo 唐船奉行 to regulate foreign relations, and the reason why Ino-Yamato no kami-Sadatsura 飯尾大和守貞連 was appointed as the first tosenbugyo. In the fourth year of Eikyo 永享 (1432), the diplomatic relations, which featured the tally trade (勘合貿易) between Japan and the Ming dynasty and were discontinued after the death of the third Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu 足利義満, were then restored by the sixth shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori 足利義教. After Yoshinori's time, the totosen 渡唐船 (the fleet of the ships from Japan to Ming China) consisted of the ships belonging to three different kinds of owners: the Muromachi shogun, temples, and the shugo daimyo. According to Mansai Jugo Nikki 満済准后日記, the system of the tosenbugyo was established in 1434 (永享6年) to mediate all the business about the tally trade between the ship managers, the gozan-monks 五山僧, and the Muromachi shogun as monarch of Japan. The first main (tanto) tosenbugyo was Ino Sadatsura, who was the bugyonin (one of the shogun's executive officers) in the Muromachi period. The Ino family, especially the Yamato branch, the Kaga branch, and the Hizen branch, were influential among bugyonin called gozen satashu 御前沙汰衆 (direct judges), and were promoted by the Ashikaga shoguns. The main tosenbugyo and the sub tosenbugyo (aibugyo) were appointed from the three branch of the lno family for generations. The tosenbugyo's regular work can be devided as follows: (1) to defend the trading ships around Japan, (2) to procure export goods, (3) to mediate among the Muromachi shogun, the ship managers and the Gozan-monks (4) to manage the tallies. In addition, Ino Sadatsura also conducted negotiations with the diplomats of the Li dynasty as a representative of the Muromachi shogunate. It had been impossible for a government official to deal with the diplomatic issues during the Yoshimitsu's reign. The diplomacy of the Muromachi period particularly valued the trade and it affected domestic politics. Tosenbugyo did not play such an active part in Muromachi diplomacy as the Gozan-monks did, but it is significant that the Muromachi shogunate was the first organization to appoint the executive officers of the samurai class to high positions in its diplomatic organization.

23 3 3 1 OA 大日本名所図会

著者
大日本名所図会刊行会 編
出版者
大日本名所図会刊行会
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第1輯第9編尾張名所図会, 1919
著者
杉山 博
出版者
駒澤大学
雑誌
駒澤史学 (ISSN:04506928)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.1-11, 1978-03

20 1 1 1 OA 植民地統治論

著者
泉哲 著
出版者
有斐閣
巻号頁・発行日
1924
著者
戸塚美波子 [著]
出版者
札幌テレビ放送
巻号頁・発行日
2003
著者
兪 慰慈
出版者
福岡国際大学・福岡女子短期大学
雑誌
福岡国際大学紀要 (ISSN:13446916)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.51-66, 2003-02-18

五山文學(1191-1620)は日本臨濟宗の禪僧らの漢詩文を中心として、公家・僧侶・儒家・武将などの漢詩文も含む日本中世漢文学である。本論文の焦点を五山文學の柱である五山漢詩に絞って、その起源を探ってみたい。
著者
河田 淳一
出版者
日本物理教育学会
雑誌
物理教育 (ISSN:03856992)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.5, pp.305-306, 2002

ここ数年のカードブームはただ事ではない。集英社の「遊戯王」は東京ドームでイベントを開催するほど盛り上がり,小学生向けの講談社の雑誌「コミックボンボン」では「ミラクルVマスター」,小学館の「コロコロコミック」では「デュエルマスターズ」と新作が後を絶たない状況である。過去にはカード欲しさにスナック菓子を捨てると問題になった仮面ライダーさえも今年はカードを使って変身するうえ,海外では相変わらず「ポケモンカード」が大入気である。なぜここまでカードが流行するのか,そして子供たちを夢中にさせるものはなんなのか?集める,ダブる,交換する。ルールの中で戦う(決闘:デュエル)。これは子供世界のコミュニケーションの手段である。
著者
魚住 洋一
出版者
Japanese Association for the Contemporary and Applied Philosophy (JACAP)
雑誌
Contemporary and Applied Philosophy (ISSN:18834329)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.13-30, 2009-11-10

一九六〇年代後半から、英米においてセックスについての哲学的議論がはじまった。議論されたのは、売買春やレイプ、ポルノグラフィなどだが、それらを問題にするには、「性的」とは一体どういうことかが明らかにされねばならなかった。私はこの論文で、性的行為や性的欲望を巡る初期の議論、とりわけ、ネーゲルやソロモンが行なった「現象学的記述」とゴールドマンやソーブルが行なった「概念分析」の双方の議論を辿りながら、それらの有効性と限界性を見極めようとした。ネーゲルは、サルトルを手掛かりに、二人が互いに相手の興奮を感じて自分もさらに興奮を昂ぶらせていくという「相互人格的認知」を性的行為の規範的なありかたと考え、そうした相互性を欠いた行為を性的倒錯と見做そうとした。しかし、特定の性的行為のありかたの現象学的記述から性的行為の「規範」を短絡的に導き出してしまうところに、彼の問題点があったと思われる。性的行為を感情を伝達する一種のボディ・ランゲージと見做すコミュニケーション・モデルを提唱したソロモンも、彼の立場を受け継ぐ哲学者だが、彼の主張にも、感情を伝達する手段は他にもあるではないかといった多くの問題点がある。ところで、ゴールドマンは、性的欲望を他者との身体接触の快楽を求める欲望と定義する。彼がこうした定義を行なったのは、生殖、愛の表現、コミュニケーション、相互人格的認知などの目的を設定し、セックスをそれらの目的のための手段とする考えを批判するためである。他方ソーブルは、ゴールドマンの定義では、他者との身体接触を求めないマスターベーションが性的行為ではなくなってしまうと指摘し、性的欲望とは一定の快感を求める欲望であると一層単純化して定義するが、今度は性的と見做しうる感覚を特定することが困難になる。彼はそのことを認めつつ、哲学はそれを解明できずその問題を経験的諸学科に委ねなければならないと語る。しかも彼によれば、諸個人が性的な快感をどのように求めるようになるかは、彼/彼女の社会的条件によって異なるのである。これらのことから考えると、現象学的記述も概念分析もともに問題点を含み、性的欲望とは何かとの問いに答えることができるのは、結局は、社会構築主義ではないかというのが私の結論である。From the late 1960s, philosophical discussions on sex opened up in Britain and the U.S. The topics of the discussions were prostitution, rape, pornography and so on, but in order to deal with these problems, the question of "what is 'sexual' ?" must first be clarified. I, in this essay, reviewed the early discussions involving sexual activity and sexual desire, particularly the "phenomenological description" Nagel and Solomon gave and the argument of "conceptual analysis" that Goldman and Soble presented, intending to identify their effectiveness and limits. Nagel used Sartre's argument as a stepping-stone and considered "mutual interpersonal awareness," in which two people "sense" each other's sexual arousal and build up their arousals even more, as the norm of sexual activity, and thus defined sexual activity that lacks such reciprocity as sexual perversion. However, I consider the problem in his argument to be in the simplicity in drawing the "norm" of sexual activity from the phenomenological description of a certain sexual activity. Solomon, who proposed the communication model that regards sexual activity as a type of body language that communicates various feelings, is a philosopher who also built upon Sartre's and Nagel's foundations, and his argument also carries many problems such as the possibility of there being other means to convey feelings. On the other hand, Goldman defines sexual desire as the desire for the pleasure of physical contact with another person. His definition served as a criticism of the idea that sex is a means for purposes such as reproduction, expression of love, communication, and interpersonal awareness. Soble points out that Goldman's definition excludes masturbation, which does not require physical contact with other individuals, from sexual activity, and thus presents his further simplified definition of sexual desire as the desire for certain pleasurable sensations. However, then it becomes difficult to identify the sensations that can be defined as sexual. Soble acknowledges the problem and states that this problem is beyond the scope of philosophical analysis and should be in the hands of empirical disciplines. In addition, according to Soble, how an individual comes to seek for sexual pleasurable sensations varies with his or her social conditions. Considering the above, both the phenomenological description and conceptual analysis contain flaws, and my conclusion is that only social constructionism can solve the question of what sexual desire is.

16 5 1 1 OA 東亜聯盟論

著者
宮崎正義 著
出版者
改造社
巻号頁・発行日
1938
著者
加藤 穣
出版者
日本医学哲学・倫理学会
雑誌
医学哲学 医学倫理 (ISSN:02896427)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, pp.41-51, 2015-09-30 (Released:2018-02-01)

The objective of this paper is to discuss the reasons that some individuals in the United States refuse to be vaccinated, focusing on those reasons usually described as "conscientious." This paper discusses current compulsory vaccination practices and the most common categories of reasons objectors in the United States give for refusing vaccinations (on medical, religious, or philosophical grounds, the latter two of which are often described as conscientious reasons). Possible ways to handle refusals are examined from the perspectives of the three categories of refusals mentioned above, the particularities of vaccination within biomedical ethics, and public health ethics discussions. Although refusals based on divergent perceptions of risk are commonly classified as refusals for philosophical (personal) reasons, objectors in this category are trying to present medical reasons, which do not convince experts. Even if experts try to persuade the public by presenting scientific evidence, there remain fundamental difficulties in convincing objectors. Refusals for religious reasons are to a certain extent established historically, but few major religious groups nowadays explicitly refuse vaccinations per se. Refusals in this category are not necessarily plainly "religious." Certain refusals on religious grounds, including those based on repugnance for the use of components derived from aborted fetuses, can be avoided by technological advances in the medical field. Refusals based on philosophical reasons should be handled in more sensitive, individualized ways than they are now. The inquiry ventured in this paper is important for Japanese society in that it deals with general questions surrounding the contradictions between the autonomy principle, which is paramount in biomedical ethics, and the compulsory schema of public health policy, and asks whether and how the different qualities or characters of decisions regarding health care and public health should be translated into practice.

16 15 15 1 IR 汎心論と物理主義

著者
浅野 光紀
出版者
三田哲學會
雑誌
哲学 (ISSN:05632099)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, pp.25-43, 2015-03

投稿論文Panpsychism is the view that all things have mind or a mindlike quality, whether or not they are parts of living organisms. The purpose of this paper is to clarify this basic thesis and examine the historical meaning of the recent resurgence of panpsychism in the contemporary mind-body debate.Modern Physicalism inherited the Cartesian, dualistic conception of matter, which is lifeless and devoid of any experiential character. I will argue that this makes it difficult even for the weakest form of physicalism, namely emergentism or non-reductive materialism, to coherently reconcile its two basic doctorines 'physicalist ontology and reality of mind' and panpsychism more plausible.
著者
八ッ塚 一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.170-179, 2014

Changes in the usage of the verb "ijimeru" (to bully) and the noun "ijime" (bullying) in Japanese newspaper articles were investigated. Full-text searches and postpositional particle analysis were performed on issues of three major Japanese newspapers published between 1987 and 2011. The passive form of ijimeru (to bully) was used much more often than was the active form during the entire period investigated. During several specific years, the noun, ijime (bullying), appeared as a subject very frequently, but this trend was not consistent, and the number of articles containing this word decreased in most of the other years. Ijime (bullying) refers to an action that occurs independently of any particular actor. As such, it would be expected to appear frequently during any period of time. However, the word is construed to refer to suffering endured by an unlucky passive victim or to rare events such as natural disasters. The dissociation of the denotation from the actual usage of ijime (bullying) as well as the use of the term ijime (bullying) more generally are discussed from the perspective of social representations.
著者
林 衛
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1-53,

シンポジウム 裁判から見えてきた原発被害, 日程:2019年2月3日(日), 会場:白河市中央公民館
著者
佐久間 悠太
雑誌
人間文化研究 (ISSN:13480308)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.135-158, 2014-02-28