著者
佐藤 千登勢
出版者
筑波大学人文社会科学研究科 国際地域研究専攻
雑誌
筑波大学地域研究 = Area studies Tsukuba (ISSN:09121412)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.57-70, 2018-03-31

The food stamp program (also known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: SNAP) has been an integral part of American social welfare system since its inception in the 1960s. By providing food-purchasing assistance for low income families, it has saved millions of destitute people, especially children, from malnutrition and hunger. In the aftermath of the 2008 recession, the number of food stamp recipients has reached a record high and it has become the "last resort" safety net for those who lost jobs. Even after the U.S. economy regained the pre-recession level, more than 10% of the nation's population has been benefiting from the program. In recent years, this rapid expansion has made the food stamp program a target for criticism among budget-minded conservative Republicans and they have explored the possibility of cutting its benefits. However, since the food stamp program is administered by the Department of Agriculture under the Agricultural Act, in order to scale it down, critics have to confront various interests. Influential agricultural lobbies represent large-scale commercial farms and agribusiness. Food and beverage companies and retailers are also opposed to the cutbacks of food stamps. As a result, aside from minor budgetary changes, the food stamp program has not been changed to date. This article examines the recent controversy over the food stamp reform and explores the difficulties that conservative Republicans faced in Congress when they tried to remove food stamp program from the Agricultural Act of 2014. By focusing upon the debate in the 113th Congress, this article demonstrates that the food stamp program cannot be changed as long as conservative Republicans adhere to the principle of fiscal conservatism and fail to negotiate with agricultural and commercial interests which support the program.
著者
井手 広康 奥田 隆史
雑誌
情報処理学会論文誌 (ISSN:18827764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.11, pp.2044-2053, 2018-11-15

全自動麻雀卓とは「すべての牌を裏向きにしてかき混ぜ,それらを牌山に積み上げる」という作業を,プレイヤの代わりに自動で行う麻雀卓のことを指す.しかし全自動麻雀卓における牌の撹拌手法(牌のかき混ぜ方)には一定の規則性があるため,牌に偏りが生じている可能性があると従来より指摘されている.そこで本研究では,マルチエージェントシミュレーションを用いて全自動麻雀卓をマルチエージェントモデルとして表現し,シミュレーション結果から牌の撹拌率(牌の撹拌の度合い)について分析した.さらに実機による実験結果との比較を行い,マルチエージェントモデルの妥当性について検証した.
著者
田渕 恵 三浦 麻子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.17331, (Released:2018-11-15)
参考文献数
21

The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarity in chronic regulatory focus (promotion/prevention) among elderly parents, middle-aged children, and their spouses. We made the 10-item short version of the Japanese Promotion/Prevention Focus Scale. The participants were 78 sets of middle-aged children (49.04 ± 4.06 years), their elderly parents (75.89 ± 2.74 years), and their spouses (49.38 ± 4.44 years). The results showed that the strength of children’s prevention focus was similar to that of parents’ prevention focus. On the other hand, the strengths of the promotion focus were similar between couples. We discuss the background of our findings wherein two aspects of regulatory focus have a different tendency in terms of similarity among parents, children, and their spouses in later life.
著者
岡田 高嘉
出版者
広島大学法学会
雑誌
廣島法學 (ISSN:03865010)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.324-289, 2018-07-20

This Article focuses on stereotypes and examines discrimination cases in the United States. In sex discrimination cases, courts reject state stereotyping when it perpetuates ideas about men's and women's roles and reinforces women's inferior social status. In transgender discrimination cases, courts have begun to protect transgender individuals from state demands for conformity to normative stereotypes about how to be a man or woman. Governmental discrimination against transgender individuals sends the subordinating message that transgender people as a group are inferior to cisgender people as a group. That message rang loud and clear when state legislatures passed anti-transgender bills. The anti-transgender "bathroom bills" have cropped up in a number of states over the past couple of years. What these bills do is inflict further indignity for a population that has already suffered. This Article examines the constitutionality of the "bathroom bills" at length.
著者
稲葉 慎 高槻 成紀 上田 恵介 伊澤 雅子 鈴木 創 堀越 和夫
出版者
日本生態学会
雑誌
保全生態学研究 = Japanese journal of conservation ecology (ISSN:13424327)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.51-61, 2002-09-30
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
2

小笠原諸島に生息するオガサワラオオコウモリのうち,父島個体群の生息数は近年150頭前後でほぼ安定していたが,2001年頃から急速に減少しており,保全対策を緊急に実施する必要がある.オガサワラオオコウモリは果実食で現在では栽培植物に大きく依存し,またエコツーリズムの対象となりつつあるなど,本種をめぐる自然環境・社会環境は複雑であるため,問題点を整理し,保全策の提言をおこなった.
著者
村井 大介
巻号頁・発行日
2012-03-26

名古屋大学博士学位論文 学位の種類 : 博士(情報科学)(課程) 学位授与年月日:平成24年3月26日
著者
Hirotaka Kamahori Osamu Arakawa
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.165-169, 2018 (Released:2018-11-09)
参考文献数
18

Tropical cyclone (TC) induced precipitation (TCP) over Japan is evaluated with the rain gauge observation based gridded dataset APHRO_JP. The TC–influenced frequency reaches a maximum in the Nansei Islands and decreases monotonically with latitude. On the other hand, the distribution of TCP indicates different characteristics from the one of TC–influenced frequency. The largest annual TCP, 500 mm yr−1 or more, occurs over eastern Kyushu (E-Kyushu), southern Shikoku (S-Shikoku), and the eastern Kii peninsula (E-Kii), where it accounts for 15% or more of the total precipitation. The maximum daily TCP amounts to 200 mm d−1 in those three areas, which are all located on the eastern side of Japan and correspond to eastward or southeastward topographic inclines. A significant relationship is found between the amount of annual TCP and topographic incline, and the large amount of TCP concentrates in the eastward or the southeastward inclines. The extreme daily TCP once every 50 years is also evaluated. The extreme daily TCP is estimated to be 500 mm d−1 comparable to the climatological annual TCP in E-Kyushu, S-Shikoku, and E-Kii. These three areas appear to be the most hazardous part of Japan in terms of TCP.