- 京都大學文學部研究紀要 = Memoirs of the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University (ISSN:04529774)
- no.4, pp.77-104, 1956-11-20
この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。Opinions vary as to just how much of the Anaximandrian fragment in Simplicius should be ascribed to the philosopher himself. The present writer is of the opinion that the words following κατα το χρεων rather faithfully reproduce what Anaximander actually said, while the preceding first half of the fragment is not a verbatim report though none the less representing the substance of his thought. The thought, found in the latter half of the fragment, that all beings should receive judgement (οιοοναι οικην) meet for the injustices (αοικια) done to each other, for which they are obliged to make amends (οιοοναι οικην), all according to the ordinance of time (χροναç), is shared by his contemporary Solon. Indeed the conception of a 'judgement' imposing 'amends' for 'injustice' goes back to Hesiod, but the novelty of Solon and Anaximander consists in their introduction of 'time' in this connection. Anaximander, however, is chiefly interested in the idea of 'deserved necessity' (το χρεων) whereby all things of heaven and earth return in decay into το απειρον from which they first sprang. It is only for the purpose of explaining the deserved necessity that he introduces the notion of making amends for each other's injustice according to the ordinance of time. This notion, then, has a direct relation only with the decay of beings. Thus time, according to our philosopher, does not rule over but concerns only the judgement on mutual injustice and the imposed amends therefore. As such, time serves as a concomitant ground for the decay of beings. It may be that time in this particular sense had in the mind of Anaximander a connotation of the term of payment. We know that in the age of Solon it was often found necessary to make ad hoc provisions for the cases of those with overdue debts (οι υπερημεροι). May it not be quite natural that Anaximander, living in the same period, should have given such an association to his concept of time ?