著者
Tetsuo KIMURA Naoki MUGURUMA Tatsuzo ITAGAKI Yoshitaka IMOTO Masako KAJI Hiroshi MIYAMOTO Seisuke OKAMURA Tetsuji TAKAYAMA Jouji SHUNTOU
出版者
Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
雑誌
GASTROENTEROLOGICAL ENDOSCOPY (ISSN:03871207)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.6, pp.1448-1454, 2008-06-20 (Released:2011-05-09)

症例は63歳,男性.つるし柿6個を一度に食べた後に,腹痛・嘔吐が出現し近医を受診した.上部消化管内視鏡検査にて6cm大の胃石を認めた.柿胃石と判断し,近年の報告を参考にコカ・コーラの経口摂取や内視鏡下にERCP力ニューレを用いて直接散布などを行ったところ,数個の破片に崩壊,消失する経過が内視鏡的に観察された.本疾患に対するコカ・コーラによる溶解療法は安全かつ簡便で,医療経済的にも有用な方法であると考えられた.
著者
林 純 柏木 征三郎 野村 秀幸 梶山 渉 池松 秀之 青山 俊雄 与儀 洋和
出版者
社団法人 日本感染症学会
雑誌
感染症学雑誌 (ISSN:03875911)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.3, pp.315-320, 1985-03-20 (Released:2011-09-07)
被引用数
1 or 2

B型肝炎ウイルスは家族内感染以外, 医療行為や性行為で伝播する事は良く知られているが, その他にHBsAg carrierが使用した歯ブラシやカミソリなどを介しての伝播の可能性も考えられている.著者らはcarrierとカミソリを共用したため, 劇症B型肝炎に罹患した1例を経験したので報告する.症例は沖縄県石垣市の中学校女子生徒 (14歳) で, 昭和58年1月HBsAg陽性の急性肝炎を発症し, その後意識障害の出現などから劇症B型肝炎と診断されたが, 血漿交換などにより治癒した.患者が通っていた中学校の全生徒341名のHBsAg陽性率は4.1%, anti-HBsは13.8%, anti-HBcは18.2%で, 当地区における一般住民の陽性率よりやや低い成績であった.この患者の感染経路を検討したところ, 発症2ヵ月前の修学旅行にて, 患者はHBsAg carrier (HBeAg陽性) の女生徒が美容のため下肢の剃毛に使用したカミソリをそのまま借用し, 同様に剃毛を行ったため感染したものと考えられた.HBsAg carrierへの対策として, 肝機能の面からだけでなく, 感染源としての指導, 教育を行う必要があると考えられた.
著者
児玉 英靖 張 或〓 相澤 真一 居郷 至伸 大滝 世津子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.175-195, 2007-03-10

This paper examines the Japanese concept of gemba from the angle of sociology of knowledge. The concept of gemba has been widely used in Japanese schools, factories and offices, which can be literally translated to "the real scene" in English. However, the term gemba often suggests a sense of distinction between "we as powerless workers who know better about the situation" and "they as management or outsiders who do not know what really happens in the scene." Without referring to the social actors who use this concept under specified situation, it is very difficult to pinpoint down exactly what kinds of matter belongs to in a particular gemba. Delineating how this concept was actually used in different social settings, like high school, kindergarten and convenience stores, it suggests that, on the one hand, the concept's intension and the contents it connotes are often ambiguous, on the other hand, its extension often denotes a well-defined and clear boundary of what should be included within a particular gemba. The article thus discusses how the use of this concept may actually relate to group dynamics and thus it may reveal the power structure in contemporary Japanese society.
著者
小山 直人 北川 忠生
出版者
日本魚類学会
雑誌
魚類学雑誌 (ISSN:00215090)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.153-157, 2009 (Released:2014-03-05)

In order to examine genetic introgression from the orange-red type commercial strain of Oryzias latipes (himedaka) to wild medaka populations, a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was conducted for 45 populations from the Yamato River system, Nara Prefecture and two fish farm populations from special product grounds of himedaka (Yamatokoriyama and Yatomi Cities). Orange-red type fish only were collected from three sites, and a mixture of wild and orange-red types from sympatric populations at four other sites in theYamato R. system. Most orange-red type specimens had the B27 mitotype, being identical with that of the typical orange-red type Hd-rR strain. Although most of the wild type fish individuals had mitotype B1a, inferred as one of the native mitotypes in the Yamato R., four from three sites had mitotype B27, implying genetic introgression from himedaka to wild medaka populations.
著者
阿部 由里 猪瀬 礼璃菜 藤原 聖史 兼子 伸吾 平塚 明
出版者
日本生態学会
雑誌
保全生態学研究 (ISSN:13424327)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.95-102, 2014-05-30

野生状態での存続が危ぶまれる水準にまで個体数が減少してしまった絶滅危惧植物において、栽培によって個体や系統を維持することは、その種の絶滅を回避する上で一定の意義がある。その一方で、近縁の外来種の混入による遺伝子汚染や種内の遺伝構造の攪乱等を生じる危険性があり、絶滅危惧植物の栽培集団の創出や維持管理については十分な注意が必要である。本研究では、岩手県内の各地に栽培されているアツモリソウの遺伝的多様性を把握するために、葉緑体DNAのtrnL-F遺伝子間領域および核DNAのITS領域の塩基配列について解析を行った。今回の解析により、遠野市においてアツモリソウとして栽培されていた集団内の1個体においては、葉緑体DNAおよび核DNAの双方において他個体のアツモリソウとは明確に異なる塩基配列が検出された。この塩基配列は、中国固有のC. yunnanenseかC. franchetiiもしくはC. calcicolaと同一もしくは類似しており、中国原産の外来種が混入していると推定された。当該集団における他の個体についても、網羅的に今回の研究と同様の解析を行い、他地域からの混入が疑われる個体を明らかにしたうえで、管理方針を検討、実施する必要がある。
著者
大竹 二雄
出版者
Fisheries Research Agency
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.179-185, 2006 (Released:2011-09-09)

20 17 17 17 OA 東莠南畝讖 3巻

著者
毘留舎耶谷 纂輯
巻号頁・発行日
vol.[1], 1700
著者
菊地 賢 金指 あや子 大曽根 陽子 澤田 與之 野村 勝重
出版者
日本緑化工学会
雑誌
日本緑化工学会誌 (ISSN:09167439)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.457-464, 2015 (Released:2016-04-19)
被引用数
1 or 0

ハナノキは,東海丘陵地域に生育する落葉高木で,絶滅危惧II類に指定されている絶滅危惧種であるが,自生地域では街路樹としてよく植栽されている。こうした植栽木の中に北米原産の近縁種アメリカハナノキとみられる個体が混入し,一部で実生が定着している実態が明らかとなった。近縁外来種は,競争だけでなく,浸透性交雑や繁殖阻害のように生殖を介しても影響を与えるため,在来種の存続に深刻な影響を与える可能性がある。そこで外来種を同定するための簡便な種識別手法の開発を試みたところ,葉の形態的指標である LDIは,種間で有意差が見られたものの識別手法としては有効とはいえなかったが,葉緑体遺伝マーカーは種の識別に有用であった。さらに生理生態特性の解析から,アメリカハナノキは暗条件下でハナノキより高い光合成速度を示すこと,さらに,ハナノキとアメリカハナノキとが交雑可能であることが明らかとなり,アメリカハナノキの侵入可能性が示された。今後,アメリカハナノキの侵入拡大を未然に防除するために,早急に植栽混入の現状や流通経路を究明し,生物学的侵入リスクを生態・遺伝・生理等の面から評価する必要がある。
著者
平川 真 深田 博己 塚脇 涼太 樋口 匡貴
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.6, pp.532-539, 2012 (Released:2012-08-18)

Why do people make requests indirectly? We examined the goals of indirect requests in order to answer this question. In Study 1, 162 university students completed a questionnaire regarding the goals of indirect requests. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the goals of indirect requests could be classified into five types: concern for the listener, making an effective request, avoidance of explicit refusal, self-impression management, or conveyance of indebtedness. In Study 2, we examined whether these goals actually affect the use of indirect requests by conducting a questionnaire study with 25 university students. The results indicated that some goals (making an effective request, avoidance of explicit refusal, self-impression management, and conveyance of indebtedness) have positive effects on indirect requests, whereas the goal of concern for the listener has no effect. Therefore, we concluded that these four goals which have positive effects are reasonable goals for indirect requests.
著者
三浦 麻子 稲増 一憲 中村 早希 福沢 愛
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.174-186, 2017-03-31 (Released:2017-04-07)

This research applies spatial statistics to examine proximal factors affecting the political behavior of voters in a regional election in Japan, particularly, voter proximity to the election campaigns of the candidates. During the mayoral election in Akō City, Hyōgo Prefecture, voters’ political behavior, attitudes, and awareness of politics were measured using a social survey, the spatial location information relating to candidates’ election campaigns being measured using GPS. Voters’ favorable perception of a certain candidate was positively correlated to the degree of contact with his election campaign of voters themselves or that of their neighborhood, but not to spatial proximity with his campaign. On the other hand, both the degree of contact and spatial proximity with his election campaign of voters themselves led them to cast their votes for the candidate, even controlling for favorability. It was revealed that there is a possibility for proximal factors to be treated more precisely by applying spatial statistics.
著者
林田 賢史 村上 玄樹 高橋 裕子 辻 一郎 今中 雄一
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.50-55, 2012 (Released:2012-03-07)

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine which of the two groups have higher lifetime medical expenditures; male smokers or male nonsmokers. We conducted this investigation using a Japanese single cohort database to calculate long-term medical expenditures and 95% confidence intervals. Methods: We first constructed life tables for male smokers and male nonsmokers from the age of 40 years after analyzing their mortality rates. Next, we calculated the average annual medical expenditures of each of the two groups, categorized into survivors and deceased. Finally, we calculated long-term medical expenditures and performed sensitivity analyses. Results: The results showed that although smokers had generally higher annual medical expenditures than nonsmokers, the former’s lifetime medical expenditure was slightly lower than the latter’s because of a shorter life expectancy that resulted from a higher mortality rate. Sensitivity analyses did not reverse the order of the two lifetime medical expenditures. Conclusions: In conclusion, although smoking may not result in an increase in lifetime medical expenditures, it is associated with diseases, decreased life expectancy, lower quality of life (QOL), and generally higher annual medical expenditures. It is crucial to promote further tobacco control strategically by maximizing the use of available data.
著者
Yasuhiko TAGO
出版者
Japanese Society for Aquaculture Science
雑誌
Aquaculture Science (ISSN:03714217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.3, pp.387-391, 2002-09-20 (Released:2010-03-09)

1985~2001年に神通川で漁獲されたサクラマスの年平均体重の変化を調べた。神通川で漁獲されたサクラマスの年平均体重は1992年までは約3kgであったが, 以後減少し, 1997年と2001年には約2kgまで小型化した。1997~2001年の年平均体重の平均は2.5kgで, 1987~1991年の平均値 (3kg) に比べ有意に小さかった。1991年までは0+秋季放流や1+スモルト放流に由来する回帰親魚に比べ天然魚や0+春放流に由来する親魚の平均体重は有意に大きかったが, 1992年以降では両者の大きさはほぼ同じになった。調査期間中に神通川で漁獲されたサクラマスの年平均体重 (y) と尾数 (x) の関係はy=0.000479x+2.16 (r=0.719, p=0.001) で示され, 漁獲尾数が少ない年は魚体も小さい傾向が認められた。神通川で漁獲されたサクラマスの小型化の要因としては, 海域における競合種の個体群の増大, サツキマスとの交雑および河川での漁獲による大型個体の選択的な淘汰の影響などが考えられた。
著者
小川 功
出版者
滋賀大学経済学会
雑誌
彦根論叢 (ISSN:03875989)
巻号頁・発行日
no.404, pp.64-79, 2015-06

This paper aims to explore fictitiousness intourism and chooses the Nara Dream Landtheme park, which the author describes as a"copy" of the "original" U.S. Disneyland Resort,as the object of study. The author discussessuch matters as the relationship between theoriginal and the copy, whether there were anyconnections between the creator of the originaland the founders of the copy, and the chasm ofunderstanding that existed between the twoparties.Nara Dream Land was founded by KunizoMatsuo. Deeply inspired by what he saw at Disneylandin the United States, Matsuo set out tobuild its copy in Japan with the sheer desire toshare the same exciting experience with Japanesechildren. The park, however, has oftenbeen held in a negative light, with the dominantview being it was an unofficial imitation,one that hindered the efforts years later to openthe official Disneyland in Tokyo. The park wasalso criticized for having ruined the valuablehistorical sites featured in ancient manyo wakapoems.Matsuo's autobiography and statements ofpeople close to him indicate that he met WaltDisney in 1958 and secured Disney's commitmentto provide some kind of assistance inbuilding Nara Dream Land. Their accounts canbe confirmed in several newspaper articles ofthe time, but the facts are elusive. Around thesame time, the Yomiuri Shimbun Corporationwas also vying to win Disney's cooperation fora plan to build a large amusement park by leveragingbusiness contacts with the NipponTelevision Network.Of the 20 founders of original DreamlandCorporation, the company that erected NaraDream Land, the author takes a particular interestin Masaichi Nagata, president of theDaiei Motion Picture Company. Nagata acquiredDisney's film distribution rights duringhis 1949 visit to the United States and subsequentlyhis company launched a foreign filmdivision. He also engaged in Disney characterlicensing and later helped promote Tokyo Disneylandin accordance with the agreement withthe Walt Disney Company headquarters.While recruiting potential investors forDreamland Corporation, Nagata claimed thathe introduced Matsuo to his close friend 'Walt'at the time of Matsuo's trip to America and thatMatsuo acquired Disney's permission to open areproduction in Japan. Given that Nagata wasone of the few businessmen in Japan with astrong connection to Walt Disney, and onewho made regular visits to the U.S. Disneyland,it can be presumed that his name appearing onthe list of founders as well as his active supportfor the proposed park was enough to convincepeople that Nara Dream Land was not a copybut an official reproduction of the U.S. original.In other words, Nagata's role was akin to thatof an "apparent representative."078 THE HIKONE RONSO 2015 summer / No.404The majestic railway station building situatedat the Nara Dream Land entrance is said tohave been designed by a famous architect whenhe accompanied Matsuo on his U.S. trip. Therailroad encircling the park is a standard featurein all Disneyland parks around the world, exceptfor Tokyo Disneyland, and the park inNara also adhered to this style marked by thefounder's love of trains. The author speculatesthat Matsuo, a former boss of a traveling theatertroupe, flew to the U.S. with henchmen ina show of Japanese"Jingi", and perhaps assumedthat giving his park an entrance gateway identicalto the original was sufficient to make it aDisneyland reproduction.Nara Dream Land is a negative legacy and asymbol that Japan, in the years Nara DreamLand was being developed, had not yet reachedthe level of social maturity that ensured theprotection of intellectual property rights. Thepark nevertheless had a significant impact onnumerous aspects of Tokyo Disneyland, fromits planning and establishment to designs, andfor this reason, the author argues that the nowdesolate park, and in particular, the stationbuilding of the park-encircling railroad, nothaving undergone any kind of renovationssince first built, merits recognition as industrialheritage representative of the Japanese themepark industry.