著者
長崎 郁
出版者
北海道大学大学院文学研究科
雑誌
北方言語研究 (ISSN:21857121)
巻号頁・発行日
no.1, pp.185-195, 2011-03

This folktale "Ersienei" is narrated by a female speaker of Kolyma Yukaghir, Mrs.Akulina Vasilievna Sleptsova. Mrs. Sleptsova was born in the village of old Nelemnoe(Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, Russia) in 1930. The folktale was recorded and transcribedin July 26, 2007 during my fieldwork in the village of Nelemnoe. Then I corrected thetranscription with the help of Mrs. Dar'ja Petrovna Borisova, another speaker of KolymaYukaghir, in 2008. The whole text is given in x2, the morphological analysis of the textand Japanese translation are given in x3.ErsieneiI turned 77 this year. I'm still alive and narrate stories. How can I die? The children whocome to me, ask me to narrate stories to them. Well, (I will narrate) the story.There lived a family by the river Yasachnaya, near the mouth of the river Rassokha.They had a daughter. She was 10 years old. They had a boy, the old man and old woman.In the summer, the old man went hunting on foot. The mother and her children cut grassfor their cow. They had a cow. Their daughter was big. She was beautiful. One day,when they so lived, they had a visitor. They were all at home, the father, the mother, andthe children. The visitor came to them and said, "Give me your cow." In reply, the father and mother said, "No, how can we give you our cow? We depend on it for our food andlivelihood." On hearing this, the visitor's expression turned menacing. He said, "Whetheror not you give it to me, I'll take it. If you will not give me your cow, I will kill you."Then they said, "We will not give it (to you)." They merely said that, the old womanand old man. Then he took out his gun, the visitor. And he shot the old man and thenthe old woman. Their daughter was dressed and standing. She wore her suede coat andstood there, Yukaghir suede coat, their daughter. The visitor shot again. He shot a secondtime and brought the old woman down. The girl then ran out, crying and shouting. Theirdaughter cried, shouted, and ran out. The elder son took a frying pan. He took a fryingpan and began to beat it (like a drum). "We turned into a frying pan. Those with dorsalfins came." Then he continued to beat the frying pan and jumped. The bandit saw thisand ran out. The evil visitor ran out. He ran out and stood listening. He stood listening.Where did the girl run to? He tried to find that out. He listened, listened, and understood.From the mouth of Rassokha, the sound of the bell on her suede coat was heard. It wasthe sound of her suede coat's bell. The sound of her suede coat's bell was heard. Then heran toward it. He ran, ran, and ran for a while. He lost track of the girl. He lost the soundof bell, the evil visitor. Then he went back. And the girl reached the mouth of Rassokha,crying and shouting, the poor girl! "Hurry!" She reached the people, the people livingby the mouth of Rassokha, (and said), "Hurry! A man came and killed my mother andfather with his gun. My brother remained there shouting, at home, he took a frying panand beat it (like a drum)." The people living by the mouth of Rassokha left with the girl.They went to her place and took a look. When they entered the house, the old womanand old man had already died. The people then held a meeting. They held a meeting inJaarmon, Jaarmon was the center of the Yukaghirs of Srednekolymsk. People travelledfrom Jaarmon. They came, hunted the evil visitor for three days, and found him. Theybrought him to Jaarmon. They then asked the bandit, "Why did you kill the old womanand old man?" In reply, he said, "To get their cow. I asked them, but they didn't give itto me, that is why I killed them."Some Yukaghirs continue to live by the mouth of Rassokha. The land where the banditwas killed is called "Ersienei."
著者
出原 博明 Hiroaki Dehara 桃山学院大学文学部
雑誌
英米評論 = ENGLISH REVIEW (ISSN:09170200)
巻号頁・発行日
no.8, pp.3-35, 1993-12-20

Hemingway tried to pursue something truly universal in The Old Man And The Sea. Apparently the title is more equivocal, comprehensive, less particularized, than such titles as Santiago and the Sea or Santiago and the Marlin would be. This may be one of the reasons why there have been quite a few interpretations of Santiago as something other than the fisherman he is. For instance, according to Brenner, Santiago as King Oedupus commits incest with la mar as his mother, using the fish as his genital organ, and is punished. On the other hand, Price's interpretation is that Santiago is Hemingway himself as a writer, the fish being his work, and the sharks are critics. In another interpretation, Hogge sees the realization of medieval chivalry in Santiago. The story has also often been taken as an allegory. Hemingway, however, denies his intention of symbolism, saying that the old man (in the work) is the old man, and the fish is the fish. Santiago has been decorated by many critics with such splendid tags as 'superhuman', 'medieval knight', 'King Oedipus', and 'Jesus Chirist'. The purpose of this paper is to take the tags off him for a while and to try to read Santiago as a fisherman pure and simple. To do this, I picked out three refrains in the novella as cues. (As is well known, Hemingway learned the technique of 'refrain' or 'repetition' from Gertrude Stein in his writer's apprenticeship in Paris.) The refrains I have selected are as follows: 'he [Santiago] went too far out', 'I [Santiago] wish I had the boy here', and 'You're my friend but I [Santiago] must kill you, fish'. The old man commits a lot of errors in his pursuit of the fish. First of all, he goes too far out, where he is alone with no sight of land, and of any other fishermen. The marlin he has hooked, when it comes out of the water for the first time, tells Santiago that it is two feet longer than the skiff. That is, it is impossible to take the fish aboard. Then why doesn't he realze that it is bound to be attacked by sharks on his long voyage home? His justifying excuse, 'I must kill you, fish, because I am afisherman', changes into an apology, 'I shouldn't have hooked you. I'm sorry, fish', when he is exposed to the shark's forays. The old man fails more than twice in judging when the fish will come up, so his fight with it actually takes much longer than he expected. He repeatedly wishes the boy were with him during his fight with the fish, and that with the sharks, and he confesses to him, 'I missed you', after he returns home. That is, the old man needs the boy not only as a helper but also as company. The old man, Santiago, is more convincing as a human being than as a superhuman being. He commits a lot of mistakes-as A. Pope says 'To err is human, to forgive, divine.'-, and, alone on the sea, he misses the boy. His being typically human endorses that he is a human fisherman, not a superhuman being, nor a legendary king, nor Christ. It is true that Santiago is not as ordinary as other fishermen. First of all he is more ambitious for honour and applause, and adventurous. With more gifts and faith he makes every effort to be an ideal fisherman, though he is not always successful. He tries to endure till he is on the point of collapse. His sportsmanship is without question here, and meaningful. The old man's manly, stoic attitude toward the tragic result is quite contrary to that of the nameless Cuban fisherman who was crying in the boat when he was picked up, half crazy from the loss of his great marlin, eaten up by sharks. Though the latter's experience was the source of this literary masterpiece, the author apparently idealized his fisherman. However much as he may have idealized Santiago, he did not go so far as to make him anything other than a human fisherman. The old man, Santiago, is undoubtedly no more than human being, but in extreme situations, he fights, as a representative human being with excellent gifts and human defects as well, to the extent of going beyond his limits. And he also accepts the result of his fight with both grace and pride as a man. These are what make Santiago as well as the story itself so charming, moving, and encouraging to us.
著者
忍頂寺務 編
出版者
忍頂寺務
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第11冊, 1926
著者
伊藤 義教
出版者
The Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
雑誌
オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.1-21,89, 1966

In Gathica 1. <i>xšmavato</i>, the present writer has come to the conclusion that <i>xšmavato</i> should be taken as nom., voc. or acc. P1. of <i>xšmavat</i>- "Your Highness", and not as abl. -gen. sg. of <i>xšmavat</i>- "resembling you, your-like, your adherent" (adj.) as is generally accepted. See my paradigm (p. 5.) of all the pronominal stems suffixed with -<i>vant</i>-. —In Gathica 2. <i>aka</i>, rejecting all of the interpretations proposed thus far, the present writer has pointed out the fact that the Gathic <i>aka</i> has retained its primordial meaning "to show, make clear", so that it may be regarded as an infinitive (abl. -gen. sg. of <i>aka</i>-) "in order to show, for showing". It is only in yAv. that what is meant by <i>aka</i> came near to what is meant by Pahl. <i>akas</i> "clear, evident". —In Gathica 3. <i>manaroiš</i>, the writer has derived <i>manari</i>-from <i>mru</i>-/<i>mrav</i>- (Skt. <i>bru</i>-) "to speak" (<i>mru</i>->[after the pattern of <sup>3</sup><i>dar</i>-><i>dadari</i>-] <i>mamravi</i>->[with the metathesis of <i>ra</i>><i>ar</i> prior to <i>aui</i>><i>aoi</i>] <i>mamarvi</i>->[with the assimilation of <i>v</i> to <i>i</i> in <i>vi</i>><i>yi</i>]<i>mamaryi</i>-><i>mamari</i>->[with the dissimilation of <i>m</i>><i>n</i>]<i>manari</i>-). The hapax <i>manaroiš</i> (Y. 48<sub>10</sub> a) would then mean "away <i>or</i> separating from crying".<br>The translation of several passages should suffice as examples showing my interpretation.<br>Y. 44<sub>1</sub>, <i>bc</i>: "By-virtue-of-(my)veneration—such-as the veneration (in general should be)—, o Your-Highness (<i>xšmavato</i>), o Mazda-, may Thy-Highness (θ<i>wavas</i>) tell to (Thy) friend, i. e. to myhumble-self (<i>mavaite</i>)!"<br>Y. 51<sub>13</sub> <i>bc</i>: "(the <i>dregvant</i>) whose soul shall become angry at (him) at the Cinvat Bridge, in order to show (<i>aka</i>) (thus): 'With the deed of (thy) own as well as of (thy) tongue thouhast-gone-astray from the way of justice'."<br>Y. 50<sub>2</sub> <i>cd</i>: "Those-living-rightly with justice among the many keeping off the sun —in order to show them (<i>akasteng</i> i. e. <i>akas teng</i>) mayest Thou make me arrive at the gifts of givers!"<br>Y. 48<sub>10</sub> <i>a</i>: "When, o Mazda, shall the warriors attend-the-sacrifice, separating-from-(their) crying (<i>manaroiš</i>)?" that is, "The warriors are now adhering to the old cult in which cry is raised to kill the ox. When shall they separate from such a religious custom in order to attend our newly established cult?"
著者
水嶋 雅子 横田 祥 石川 岳彦 華岡 由香里 〓野 繁雄 劔物 修
出版者
The Japanese Society of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
雑誌
臨床薬理 (ISSN:03881601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.777-781, 1989

Effects of pre-operative administration of ranitidine on pH and volume of gastric juicewere evaluated in 54 children (mean age: 5.4±1.0 yr) who underwent elective surgeryunder general anesthesia. Simultaneously, bromazepam suppository was evaluated as a premedicationagent for pediatric patients. Patients were randomly divided into four groups, and premedication agents were given 2 hr prior to induction of anesthesia. Patients ingroup A received diazepam syrup (0.5 mg/kg P. o.) ahd those in group B received bromazepamsuppository (3 mg). Patients in groups C and D received ranitidine (1 mg or2 mg/kg i. m.) together with bromazepam suppository (3 mg). Following induction ofanesthesia, a gastric tube (10 Fr. or 12 Fr.) was passed and stomach contents were collectedand analyzed for volume and pH, which was repeated every hr until the end ofthe operation. The gastric pH at the induction of anesthesia was observed to be 2.5 orless in 70% of the patients of groups A and B, 13% of group C, and O% of group D.The volume of gastric contents was less than 0.4 ml/kg in 87% of ranitidine-treatedpatiehts (groups C and D), in 29% of group A, ahd in 60% of group B. It was thenconcluded that pre-operative administration of ranitidine caused a significant reduction ofboth acidity and volume of gastric contents, which will contribute to preventing or reducingaspiration pneumonitis during general anesthesia. Plasma ranitidine concentrationsmeasured by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed 228±32 ng/ml in group Cand 487±59 ng/ml in group D at the induction.of anesthesia. Sedation at the inductionof anesthesia was evaluated utilizing our original pediatric premedication score, whichconsists of 3 check points: quietness (very good, 3 ; good, 2 ; fair, 1 ; bad, 0); crying (no, 2 ; a little, 1 ; yes, 0); and i. v. root (under local anesthesia, 1 ; following induction ofanesthesia, 0). The averaged scores were 4.5±0.4 in group A, 4.2±1.9 in group B, 4.1±0.6 in group C, and 4.8±0.5 in group D, respectively. There was no significantdifference in the score in 4 groups. A plasma bromazepam level was 414±49 ng/ml at theinduction of anesthesia. Our results showed that bromazepam suppository is as effectiveas diazepam syrup for premedication in children.
著者
ウヴェ リヒタ 大沢 久人 岩手県立大学総合政策学部 Policy Studies Association Iwate Prefectural University
出版者
岩手県立大学総合政策学会
雑誌
総合政策 = Journal of policy studies (ISSN:13446347)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.3, pp.251-256, 2000-12-31

1999年の秋、ドイツ社会民主党・経の党の赤緑連合は、トルコによる「レオパルト2」戦車1000台の輸入計画によって崩壊寸前であった。緑の党は、トルコ国内における人権侵害の故に戦車輸出に反対し、社会民主党は、軍需産業における労働者の雇用の確保、および北大西洋条約機構(NATO)加盟国トルコに対する責任を主張した。結局、危機は妥協によって回避された。トルコに試用目的の戦車を1台供与し、西暦2001年に最終的な決断を下すことになったのである。しかし、1992年にドイツ国防省が連邦議会の意に反して15台の戦車をトルコに提供したことで、当時の国防相は辞職に追いやられている。トルコヘの武器輸出は、30年来変わらぬドイツ政治の厄介な課題である。ドイツの武器輸出政策の実態と法的根拠、およびその内政上、外交上の目的についで、トルコを事例として述べる。This article is about the principles and policy of German weapon exports, the crisis inside the red-green coalition in autumn 1999 because of conflicting views concerning weapon exports, patterns of German Near-East-policy and recent changes in German foreign and security policy.
著者
守矢実久 編
出版者
中村甚之助
巻号頁・発行日
1902
著者
藤原 豊司
出版者
The European Union Studies Association-Japan
雑誌
日本EU学会年報 (ISSN:18843123)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, no.23, pp.121-139,299, 2003

The EU is on the verge of revising, or at least making flexible the guiding principle of its unified currency. They are making, I'm afraid, a fatal error of judgement. The remarkable success, so far, of the euro was entirely due to the shift of macro-economic principles, from demand management to monetary targeting.<br>The guiding principle of the single currency, of which the most important is to contain budget deficit within 3% of the GDP, was certainly a kind of straight-jacket to many of the participating countries to the euro. The majority of the 12 participants, including such laggards as Ireland and Greece, managed to endure inflationary and other pressures, inflicted by the "one-size-fits-for-all" measures demanded by the stability and growth pact.<br>Ironically, it is Germany, France and Italy, the 3 largest and central countries of the euro zone, that are now crying for help. It is especially paradoxical that Germany, which has been demanding the strict application of the SGP principles, has now excessive budgetary deficit and is calling for flexibility in their applications.<br>As of the beginning of March, 2003, it is not decided yet whether the SGP should be revised or not, but judging from the report the Commission presented to the Ecofin Council, they are sure to make "flexible interpretations", if not revisions to the SGP. Are they right? I thnk not.<br>Ms. Kathleen McNamara, Assistant Professor at Princeton, produed a remarkable book on the euro, called "The Currency of Ideas" (1998). Based on the analysis of the world monetary history after the war, including the Bretton Woods system, she concluded that European monetary systems made a great success, because their guiding principles were shifted from Keynesian to Neoliberal theories. In European context, this meant that all the euro participants had virtually abandoned Keynesian demand management policies and converted to the monetarist approach, which the German Bundesbank had pursued since the end of the World War II.<br>World monetary authorities are now facing unprecedented pressures of world-wide deflation. It is understandable that European financial authorities are demanding flexibility in applying the SGP. But we must remind ourselves that in the colossalised economies, demand stimulus rarely works, as is shown by Japanese policies. Euro financial ministers should be patient.<br>Fortunately for the majority of euro-participants, the March Ecofin Council only produced a very short statement on the SPG that it "provides a robust and flexible framework within which any additional strains on public finances will be addressed". It was reported that Gordon Brown, British Chancellor of Exchequer, had tried to present a plan to make a flexible interpretation to the SGP, but Belgium, Spain, Italy and other small countries prevented the proposal, made in collaboration with France and Germany. The EU might have to endure some period of uncertainty over the euro. But it may turn out to be beneficial to the single currency after all.
著者
西原 留美子 佐久間 志保子
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学健康科学部紀要 (ISSN:13474162)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.9-18, 2007

成年後見制度は、判断能力が不十分な人の身上に配慮しつつ、「本人意思を尊重した自己決定の尊重」と「本人の保護」との調和を図ることを制度の理念としている。しかし、判断能力が不十分な人の意思確認は困難を要する場合も多く、本人の最善の利益を成年後見人等が本人に代わって判断しなければならない。社会福祉士が成年後見活動を行う際には、身上に配慮した生活支援のあり方について何を根拠に決定したのか、専門職としての説明責任を果たさなければならない。そのためにはアセスメント項目を明確にする必要があると考え、本研究を開始した。本稿は研究の第一段階として、実際に後見活動を行っている社会福祉士に聴き取り調査を行った結果報告の第一報である。5事例を分析した結果、「安定した生活環境がある」「本人からの訴えの有無」「社会通念」「家庭裁判所の判断」「経済状態」「家族状況」といった要素を見出すことができた。
著者
坂上 雅道 山本 愛実
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.2_29-2_40, 2009 (Released:2010-02-15)
参考文献数
20

To survive in changeable circumstances, we have to make appropriate decisions on our behavior. Recent studies have suggested that we have two brain processes to calculate reward values of objects. One is the process coding a specific reward value of a stimulus or event dependent on direct experience. The other enables us to predict reward based on the internal model of given circumstances, including societies, which doesn't necessarily require direct experience. The nigro-striatal network works for the model-free decision and the prefrontal network contributes to the model-based decision. These two networks are cooperative in one occasion and are competitive in another.
著者
Baoting He Weiqing Long Xiuhong Li Wenhan Yang Yajun Chen Yanna Zhu
出版者
一般社団法人 日本動脈硬化学会
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2017-06-23)
参考文献数
35

Aims: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may increase the prevalence of obesity and other metabolic risk factors. However, data regarding the relationship between SSB consumption and metabolic risk factors are insufficient in Chinese children. Hence, we aimed to explore the association between SSB consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children aged 7–18 years living in South China.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 2,032 children aged 7–18 years were enrolled, including 1,013 boys and 1,019 girls. Based on a multistage cluster sampling, five elementary and four secondary schools in Guangzhou, China were included. Fasting blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated. Information on demography, dietary, and physical activities were self-reported.Results: Overall, 34.7% participants were non-drinkers and 21.6% consumed more than 120 mL/day SSB. The body mass index (19.43±0.18 kg/m2) and triglyceride concentration (0.96±0.03 mmol/L) were higher and high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.32±0.31 mmol/L) was lower in consumers than in non-consumers (all P<0.001). Furthermore, in contrast to non-consumers, the adjusted odds ratio of SSB consumption more than 120 mL/day was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.21–3.54) for obesity, 1.83 (95% CI: 1.25–2.69) for abdominal obesity, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02–3.06) for hypertriglyceridemia in consumers.Conclusion: A positive association between SSB consumption and the risks of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia was observed in children living in South China, which suggests that high SSB consumption enhances the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors and the consequent cardio-metabolic diseases.
著者
市来弘志
雑誌
東洋学報 / The Toyo Gakuho
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.1, pp.125-137, 1993-10
著者
澤 宣成 伊藤 毅志
雑誌
研究報告ゲーム情報学(GI)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2011, no.3, pp.1-8, 2011-06-24

将棋における棋風を形成する要素に関する統計的分析Using statistical analysis of the feature extracted from game records, we tried to clarify the elements makes human feel the play-style. As the result, several features were found.
著者
忍頂寺務 編
出版者
忍頂寺務
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第1冊, 1926

2 2 2 2 清元研究

著者
忍頂寺務 著
出版者
春陽堂
巻号頁・発行日
1930
著者
森田 茂紀 豊田 正範
出版者
日本作物學會
雑誌
日本作物學會紀事 (ISSN:00111848)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.2, pp.217-223, 2000-06-05
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
3 or 0

メキシコ合衆国バハ・カリフォルニア州のゲレロ・ネグロで, 日本政府とメキシコ政府の共同事業として, メキシコ沙漠地域農業開発プロジェクト(以下, プロジェクト)が実施された.プロジェクトの目的は, 沙漠地域で野菜と果樹を点滴灌漑栽培するための技術を開発し, 移転することであった.プロジェクトの圃場の土壌と, そこで用いられる灌漑水は, いずれもpHと塩類濃度が高いという問題を持っているため, 作物の耐塩性に関する問題は重要な課題である.そこで本研究では, 耐塩性の問題を研究していくための基礎的なデータを得るために, 根から吸収されて茎葉部へ転流される様々なイオンについて検討した.すなわち, プロジェクトで重要な作物であるトウガラシとメロンについて, 成熟期の出液中に含まれているイオンの分析を行なうとともに, 出液速度を測定した.露地栽培したトウガラシでは出液中のイオン濃度に昼夜で差があったが, 出液速度も昼頃にピークを持つ山型の日変化パターンを示した.一方, 畝立マルチ栽培のメロンでは, イオン濃度も出液速度も昼夜に関係なくほぼ同じレベルであった.そこで, 出液速度を考慮して検討したところ, 耐塩性に関係しているナトリウムイオンの濃度は出液速度が大きいと低く, 出液速度が小さいと高いことが明らかとなった.なお, 土壌のイオン濃度も場所によって異なっていたため, バックグラウンドとして土壌成分を基準にした比較も行なった.以上のように, 出液成分に着目したアプローチによって, 作物の耐塩性を研究するために基礎的データが得られるが, 出液速度や土壌条件を考慮して解析する必要があることが明らかとなった.