著者
尾田 十八 坂本 二郎 坂野 憲一
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集. A編 = Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. A (ISSN:03875008)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.701, pp.89-94, 2005-01-25
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
2

A woodpecker strikes its beak toward a tree repeatedly. But, the damage of brain or the brain concussion doesn't occur by this action. Human cannot strike strongly the head without the damage of a brain. Therefore, It is predicted that the brain of a woodpecker is protected from the shock by some methods and that the woodpecker has the original mechanism to absorb a shock. In this study, the endoskeltal structure, especially head part structure of woodpecker is dissected and the impact-proof system is analyzed by FEM and model experiment. From the results, it is obvious that the woodpecker has the original impact-proof system as the unique states of hyoid bone, skull, tissue and brain. Moreover it is considered that woodpecker has the advanced impact-proof system relating with not only the head part but also with the whole body.

1 1 1 1 OA 芥子園画伝

著者
王安節 等摸古
出版者
前川文栄堂
巻号頁・発行日
vol.初集 鳥獣,棲閣式 上, 1881

1 1 1 1 OA 芥子園画伝

著者
王概 等編
出版者
共和書局
巻号頁・発行日
vol.初集 第三冊, 1914
著者
古谷 力
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.106, no.10, pp.856-866, 1986-10-25 (Released:2011-01-31)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
3

Plant tissue culture is profitably used in biotechnology today to produce valuable compounds and to rapidly and uniformly propagate economically important plants.The main objective of this review is to outline the advances in the production of medicaments and biochemicals by plant tissue cultures. In relation to this objective, the development of newly advanced techniques such as transformation, cell fusion, biotransformation, bioreactor with immobilized plant cells, and synthetic seeds, is briefly discussed.Recent studies in my laboratory on the bioconversion of 2-phenylpropionic acid (mainly glycosylation) and l-menthol (glycosylation and hydroxylation) by plant suspension cells, and of codeinone (reduction) by the bioreactor with immobilized opium poppy cells, and on the de novo synthesis of stress metabolites in the immobilized licorice cells, are described. The production of Korean ginseng and saponin ginsenosides in Korean ginseng suspension cells, and of Vitamin E in safflower cells are also discussed.
著者
森口 郁生
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.114, no.3, pp.135-146, 1994-03-25 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
3

Recent development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) and computer-aided drug design contributed by the author and his coworkers was briefly reviewed. Fuzzy adaptive least-squares (FALS), a pattern recognition method for analysing structure-activity rating data to generate QSAR models was developed. A novel feature of FALS is that the degree to which each sample belongs to its activity class is given by a fuzzy membership function. Using FALS, non-congeneric QSAR analyses of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and six kinds of pharmacokinetic properties of miscellaneous organic chemicals were performed to construct predictive models for drug design. In these QSAR analyses, the values of log P (partition coefficient in octanol/water) calculated by the simple method of Moriguchi et al. were used as the descriptor for hydrophobicity. The method of Moriguchi et al. is not only simple and convenient but also reliable in the application to 22 drugs selected by Rekker et al. compared to the Rekker method and the Hansch-Leo method. Lastly, a heulistic search method for active conformers using molecular mechanical confor-mational analysis and principal component analysis was proposed.
著者
上野 勝次郎 岡田 清三郎
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.4, pp.532-535, 1962-04-25 (Released:2010-02-19)
参考文献数
10

Dornow and others synthesized 2-aminonicotinic acid derivatives by the condensation of β-diketone and amidine or imino ethers. Pyridine cyclization by the condensation of β-diketones with non-symmetrical structure and malonamideamidine or ethyl 3-amino-3-ethoxyacrylate was examined and a new derivative of 2-aminonicotinic acid derivatives, which may serve as intermediate for synthesis of pyridoxine, were obtained. The compounds synthesized were ethyl 2-amino-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methylnicotinate, diethyl 2-amino-6-methyl-3, 4-pyridinedicarboxylate, and ethyl 2-amino-4-carbamoyl-6-methylnicotinate, and their structures were determined.
著者
清水 當尚 宇野 準 伊藤 継孝 増田 義信 黒川 美貴雄
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.7, pp.533-547, 1996-07-25 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
4

Zonisamide (1, 2-benzisoxazole-3-methanesulfonamide, AD-810) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug which has been launched in Japan and South Korea. It lacks the ureide structure included in most of the existing antiepileptic drugs. Zonisamide was synthesized by the sulfonation and the successive amination of 1, 2-benzisoxazole-3-acetic acid in a very poor yield. After several efforts to optimaize the compound, zonisamide was selected based on the balance of the efficacy and safety. The yield was greatly improved by the development of new synthetic routes. Zonisamide suppressed maximal electroshock seizures in mice, rats, rabbits and dogs. Its therapeutic plasma concentration range between anticonvulsant and neurotoxic effects was much wider than that of the existing antiepileptic drugs. In electroencephalographic studies on animal models of epilepsy, zonisamide, like phenytoin and carbamazepine, restricted the spread or propagation of seizures and, like sodium valproate, it suppressed the epileptogenic focus activity. Zonisamide was effective in several kindling models. In clinical studies, zonisamide exerted the efficacy against partial seizures (simple, complex, secondarily generalized seizures) and some generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, tonic, atypical absence seizures) that were comparable to that of carbamazepine and sodium valproate, respectively. Zonisamide was also effective in monotherapy. The adverse effects related with zonisamide were mainly drowsiness, ataxia, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Serious adverse effects which may be life-threatening have not been reported.
著者
HEDBERG Bo
出版者
Oxford University Press
雑誌
Handbook of Organizational Design (1)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.3-27, 1981
被引用文献数
1
著者
森 洋明
出版者
天理大学おやさと研究所
雑誌
天理大学おやさと研究所年報 (ISSN:1341738X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.19-32, 2003

フランスで,イスラム教の女子生徒が着用するスカーフが初めて社会問題として取り上げられたのは,1989 年のことである。60 年代からのイスラム教系移民の増加がその背景にあるが,2003 年12 月,シラク大統領は国民に向けて,スカーフの規制に関する法案作成を示唆する演説を行った。これを受けて,国民議会は法案を賛成多数で可決し,2004 年の新学期から適用することを決定した。このいわゆる「スカーフ問題」の焦点は,ライシテ(Laïcité)と呼ばれる,公共機関における非宗教性である。これは1789 年の草命以来,フランスを支え続けてきた共和国精神の核となる考え方であるが,それはまたカトリック支配からの脱却の中で培われた精神でもある。さらにそこには,「不可分」と謳う共和国憲法が押し進めてきた,移民に対する同化政策も無関係ではない。しかし一方で,この問題の根底には,今日のフランスが抱えるイスラム教系移民との社会摩擦も見え隠れする。In France,the headscarf worn by Muslim schoolgirls became a social issue for the first timein 1989. The increase of Muslim immigrants that started during the 1960s was an underlyingfactor. In December 2003,President Chirac gave a speech to the nation that hinted at draftinga law banning the wearing of the headscarf. Accordingly,the National Assembly passed thelaw by a majority and decided to enforce it from the new school term of 2004. The focus ofthis"headscarf issue" is so-called "Laïcité," which is secularism in public institutions. It isone of the core ideas of the republican spirit that supported France since the revolution of1789,and is an idea that developed through breaking away from the control of the Catholicchurch. Also related is the assimilation policy for immigrants the constitution of the"indivisible"Republic has been promoting. However,the issue also appears to be rooted in social frictionwith Muslim immigrants in France today.
著者
越智 知子 土屋 京子
出版者
The Japan Society of Home Economics
雑誌
日本家政学会誌 (ISSN:09135227)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.12, pp.1063-1067, 1987-12-20 (Released:2010-03-10)
参考文献数
10

バターと卵の配合比率が異なるスポンジケーキのレオロジー的性質を測定し, あわせて官能検査を行い検討した.材料配合比率は全量に対して小麦粉20%, 砂糖25%と一定にし, パターと卵の比率をAは3%と52%, Bは7%と48%, Cは14%と42%, Dは19%と36%の4段階に設定し試料とした.1) 静的粘弾性測定装置により, クリープ曲線を得, 粘弾性解析を行った.スポンジケーキはフックの弾性体, ニュートン粘性体および3組のフォークト体から成る, 8要素のフォークト型粘弾性模型で示された.弾性率 (E0, E1, E2, E3) は104~105dyn/cm2, ) 粘性率 (η1, η2, η3, ηN) は105~108Pであった.A, B, C, Dの順に各要素の粘弾性率は増加し, DはAの4~5倍に増加した.遅延時間に顕著な差はなかった.2) テクスチャー特性値測定では A, B, C, Dの順に硬さが増加したが, 弾力性, 凝集性は漸減した.3) 官能検査の結果, 手で圧したときの硬さの順位は客観測定の弾性率, 粘性率, テクスチャー特性値の硬さとよく対応したが, 食べたときの硬さの順位は客観測定の弾性率, 粘性率, テクスチャー特性値の硬さと反対で, 口どけの順位とよく一致し, 食べたときの硬さの感覚は口どけの影響を強く受けたと考えられる。比容積はA, B, C, Dの順に減少した.4) 品質のよいスポンジケーキを作るための, バターと卵の最適配合比率は, 本実験における諸特性値の総合的物断によれば19%と36% (D), および13%と42% (C) であった.
著者
首藤 紘一
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.120, no.10, pp.987-995, 2000-10-01 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
2

Cancer is a common life-threatening disease. Prevention and therapy of the disease are the desire of everybody. This paper summarizes our attempt to the tough challenge. Chronologically we began the study of carcinogenesis, and then turned to the research of anticancer agents. Identification of food mutagens was extensively studied. Once they were identified, the mechanism of nucleic acid modifications by these mutagens had been studied. The modification study gave information on the nucleic acid modification by mitomycin and bleomycin. The structure-activity relationship study of phorbol esters and teleocidines whose tumor promotion is epigenetic, was extensively studied. On the other hand, retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite, suppresses the epigenetic tumor promotion. This suggests that an epigenetically active compound rather than a cytotoxic anticancer agent can be used for tumor suppression. In the retinoid research, we found a number of characteristic new active substances which may be of therapeutic use : some of them are in the clinical trial stages in the field of dermatology and cancer. During the chemical study of retinoids, we encountered the retinoic acid receptor, coded by the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) gene which had just reported. Further retinoid research yielded retinoids antagonists, and then RXR(retinoic acid-X-receptor)-agonists and RXR-antagonists. These ligands have a big potential in the therapy of diabetes and obesity.
著者
川島 嘉明
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.106, no.6, pp.433-445, 1986-06-25 (Released:2011-01-31)
参考文献数
34

A novel agglomerated crystallization technique, termed spherical crystallization technique, which can transform fine crystals precipitated into spherical agglomerates in one step during the crystallization process, has been developed by using new agglomeration phenomena of particles in liquid system. In this technique, a binary or a ternary mixture of partially miscible solvents was used as a crystallization solvent. It was found that by choosing the proper proportion of the mixture, a small amount of immiscible liquid was liberated from the system, which could preferentially wet the crystals, forming spherical agglomerates. By using this technique, needle like crystals of salicylic acid were agglomerated into spheres being directly compressible into tablet. Spherically agglomerated crystals of aminophylline were prepared directly by reacting theophylline with ethylenediamine in an alcohol-organic solvent-water mixture. The spherically agglomerated crystals of new complex of indomethacin and epirizole with increased solubilities were prepared. Controlled release microspheres of ibuprofen with acrylic polymer were prepared to improve bioavailability.
著者
三木 卓一 松尾 泰介
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.3, pp.323-325, 1967-03-25 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
2
著者
静軒居士 著
巻号頁・発行日
vol.[2], 1832
著者
芦澤 一英 内川 清彦 服部 禎一 石橋 泰雄 三宅 康夫 里 忠
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.110, no.3, pp.191-201, 1990-03-25 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
1

In designing the dosage form, one major factor controling their physicochemical properties is solid forms of the drug powder. The method for improving the physicochemical stability of unstable β-lactam antibiotics is very important. E1040 is a novel parenteral 3-betaine type cephalosporin which has a broad antibacterial spectrum and potent activities against Citrobacter, freundii, Enterobacter cloacase, and glucose-nonfermentative bacteria, including P. aeruginosa. The present study was intended to provide the solid-state chemical stability of perenteral steril dry dosage form of E1040. The chemical stability differences among the various solid forms, dry amorphous, additive freeze dried amorphous solid and crystalline powder, were evaluated as a function of temperature by thermo stress tests. Freeze dried anhydrous amorphous form was the first steril dry dosage form investigated during the preformulation study. However, this compound is chemically unstable, in the titer of them, reduction are observed in the freeze dried amorphous solid. In order to select the most suitable solid form of E1040, two methods were used. One was crystalline solid and the other was NaCl additive freezedried formulation. Through our experiments, the solid-state chemical stabilization can be achieved by these two methods (effect of crystal structure and effect of NaCl additive).
著者
Emma J. Gagen Alan Levett Jeremiah Shuster Danielle Fortin Paulo M. Vasconcelos Gordon Southam
出版者
Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology · The Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology
雑誌
Microbes and Environments (ISSN:13426311)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.ME18019, (Released:2018-11-16)

The surface crust that caps highly weathered banded iron formations (BIFs) supports a unique ecosystem that is a post-mining restoration priority in iron ore areas. Geochemical evidence indicates that biological processes drive the dissolution of iron oxide minerals and contribute to the ongoing evolution of this duricrust. However, limited information is available on present-day biogeochemical processes in these systems, particularly those that contribute to the precipitation of iron oxides and, thus, the cementation and stabilization of duricrusts. Freshly formed iron precipitates in water bodies perched on cangas in Karijini National Park, Western Australia, were sampled for microscopic and molecular analyses to understand currently active microbial contributions to iron precipitation in these areas. Microscopy revealed sheaths and stalks associated with iron-oxidizing bacteria. The iron-oxidizing lineages Sphaerotilus, Sideroxydans, and Pedomicrobium were identified in various samples and Leptothrix was common in four out of five samples. The iron-reducing bacteria Anaeromyxobacter dehalogens and Geobacter lovleyi were identified in the same four samples, with various heterotrophs and diverse cyanobacteria. Given this arid, deeply weathered environment, the driver of contemporary iron cycling in Karijini National Park appears to be iron-reducing bacteria, which may exist in anaerobic niches through associations with aerobic heterotrophs. Overall oxidizing conditions and Leptothrix iron-oxidizers contribute to net iron oxide precipitation in our sampes, rather than a closed biogeochemical cycle, which would result in net iron oxide dissolution as has been suggested for canga caves in Brazil. Enhancements in microbial iron oxide dissolution and subsequent reprecipitation have potential as a surface-crust-ecosystem remediation strategy at mine sites.
著者
寺門静軒 著
出版者
聚栄堂
巻号頁・発行日
1921

1 1 1 1 OA 百万塔

著者
中根淑 校
出版者
金港堂
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第7巻, 1892
著者
三井 幸雄
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.100, no.6, pp.585-601, 1980-06-25 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
72

There are two different techniques for the X-ray structure analyses of materials ; that for small molecules and that for macromolecules. The latter technique, is called"protein crystallography."The characteristics of protein crystallography as opposed to ordinary crystallography for small molecules are described. Some of the achievements of protein crystallography and their impact on other scientific fields are discussed, and perspectives for the possible contribution of protein crystallography to molecular pharmacology are given.