- スラヴ研究 (ISSN:05626579)
- vol.3, pp.7-65, 1959
The leitmotif of this article is to compare Bakuninism with Marxism in terms of their philosophical and sociological foundations as well as of their revolutionary programmes and tactics. In a word, the basic pathos of Marxism is Equality, and it starts with the society, whereas Bakunin's is Liberty and he starts with the individual. Indeed, his social and political theory begins, and almost ends, with liberty. That is why Bakunin's criticism of "the dictatorship of proletariat" is so severe and uncompromising. It may be said that his "apolitism" and the rejection of legal political action lead to the syndicalist ideas. Marx introduced into the revolutionary theory and practice the order, method, and authority, and thereby laid the foundation of the disciplined revolutionary State, Bakunin was a visionary and a romantic. His concern was not with the mass but with the individual, not with institutions but with morality. On the other hand, the combination between the Russian reality and his unrealism is peculiar enough. The paradox of history shows us that Lenin owes more to that rebel of the eastern backward country rather than to his official teacher, Karl Marx in formulating his own revolutionary tactics.(Particulary in his theory of "smychka" between workers and peasants and also his concept of the revolutionary party organization.) At all events, Bakunin's ideas, with his all fantasies and Narodnik biases, are deep-rooted in the Russian soil.