著者
Keiichi Itoh Shoji Masumori Daisuke Mukai Hiroyuki Sakakibara Michiko Yasuda Kayoko Shimoi
出版者
The Japanese Society of Toxicology
雑誌
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences (ISSN:03881350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.4, pp.273-282, 2019 (Released:2019-04-03)
参考文献数
46

Previously, we reported that the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) in the peripheral blood of male C3H/He mice intraperitoneally administered ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (25 mg/kg body weight) in the dark period (zeitgeber time, ZT15) was higher than in the light period (ZT3). In this study, to clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we investigated the differences in micronucleus (MN) induction observed between ZT3 and ZT15 using five chemicals, methylnitrosourea (MNU), ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide and vincristin. MNU and EMS, monofunctional alkylating agents, showed higher frequencies of MNRETs in the ZT15 than the ZT3 treatment similar to ENU. However, no differences were observed for the other chemicals. In the comet assay, more DNA damage was induced by ENU in the ZT15 than the ZT3 treatment. Furthermore, the plasma erythropoietin (EPO) level, a known effector of MN induction with anti-apoptotic activity mediated by Bcl-xL expression, was higher in the dark than in the light period. EPO did not increase the frequency of MNRETs. However, in the ENU treatment group at ZT3 following EPO injection a significant increase of MNRETs was observed similar to the ZT15 treatment. Higher expression of apoptosis-related genes such as Bcl-xL was induced in bone marrow cells from mice treated with ENU at ZT15 compared with ZT3. From these results, it was speculated that the differences in MN induction in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to monofunctional alkylating agents such as ENU depend on apoptotic or anti-apoptotic conditions related to the circadian rhythms of EPO in bone marrow.
著者
Shohei Kusakabe Nahoko Higasitani Takakazu Kaneko Michiko Yasuda Hiroki Miwa Shin Okazaki Kazuhiko Saeki Atsushi Higashitani Shusei Sato
出版者
Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology / Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology / Taiwan Society of Microbial Ecology / Japanese Society of Plant Microbe Interactions / Japanese Society for Extremophiles
雑誌
Microbes and Environments (ISSN:13426311)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.ME19141, 2020 (Released:2020-02-20)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
6

Bradyrhizobium elkanii, a rhizobium with a relatively wide host range, possesses a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) that is involved in symbiotic incompatibility against Rj4-genotype soybean (Glycine max) and some accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata). To expand our knowledge on the T3SS-mediated partner selection mechanism in the symbiotic legume-rhizobia association, we inoculated three Lotus experimental accessions with wild-type and T3SS-mutant strains of B. elkanii USDA61. Different responses were induced by T3SS in a host genotype-dependent manner. Lotus japonicus Gifu inhibited infection; L. burttii allowed infection, but inhibited nodule maturation at the post-infection stage; and L. burttii and L. japonicus MG-20 both displayed a nodule early senescence-like response. By conducting inoculation tests with mutants of previously reported and newly identified effector protein genes of B. elkanii USDA61, we identified NopF as the effector protein triggering the inhibition of infection, and NopM as the effector protein triggering the nodule early senescence–like response. Consistent with these results, the B. elkanii USDA61 gene for NopF introduced into the Lotus symbiont Mesorhizobium japonicum induced infection inhibition in L. japonicus Gifu, but did not induce any response in L. burttii or L. japonicus MG-20. These results suggest that Lotus accessions possess at least three checkpoints to eliminate unfavorable symbionts, including the post-infection stage, by recognizing different T3SS effector proteins at each checkpoint.