著者
Takahiro Higashi Shunichi Fukuhara
出版者
一般社団法人 日本内科学会
雑誌
Internal Medicine (ISSN:09182918)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.16, pp.1369-1375, 2009 (Released:2009-08-17)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
7 31

Background The overuse of antibiotics results in the unnecessary spread of resistant strains. A common setting for antibiotic overuse is in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), which are predominantly due to viruses. Objective To investigate the type and frequency of antibiotic prescription for URI without apparent bacterial infection in Japan, based on both visits and facilities. Design Cross-sectional analysis of insurance claims submitted to an employer-sponsored health insurance plan in Japan between January and March, 2005 for diagnoses of URI. Claims having a potentially valid reason for antibiotic prescription (e.g., secondary diagnosis of pneumonia) were excluded. Outcome Measures Antibiotics prescribed for these URI visits. Results From a total of 24,134 claims, 2,577 claims (non-bacterial URI, one visit per claim) were analyzed; antibiotics were prescribed in 60% of these visits. Third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly-prescribed drug class (46%), followed by macrolides (27%) and quinolones (16%). In general, visits to physician offices were more likely to result in an antibiotic prescription than visits to hospital outpatient clinics. No statistically significant difference was identified among hospital types, including private and public ownership or teaching hospital status. Analysis of the frequency of antibiotic prescription by facility revealed two peaks in distribution, with one group prescribing to about 90% of URI patients and the second appearing to prescribe to about 40% of patients. Conclusion Antibiotics are frequently prescribed to URI patients in Japan. Although overuse results from the difficulty in accurately distinguishing viral from bacterial URIs, some facilities appear to attempt to differentiate the underlying cause of the URI while others do not.
著者
Shingo Fukuma Tatsuyoshi Ikenoue Yukari Yamada Yoshiyuki Saito Joseph Green Takeo Nakayama Shunichi Fukuhara
出版者
Japan Epidemiological Association
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JE20200181, (Released:2020-07-04)
参考文献数
39

BackgroundBreaches of ethics undermine the practice of medicine. In Japan, two major scandals involving clinical research and drug marketing occurred after the publication of clinical trials. To study the effects of those scandals, we evaluated changes in the use of first-generation angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) after publication of relevant clinical trials and also after the subsequent scandals.MethodsWe conducted a quasi-experimental design of an interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) on nationwide monthly drug-market data covering 12 years (2005 to 2017) in Japan. The main outcome was the use of first-generation ARBs (valsartan, candesartan, and losartan). The two exposures were the publication of ARB-related clinical-trial results (October 2006) and subsequent ARB-related scandals involving research and marketing (February 2013). A generalized estimating equation model was fitted for ITSA with a log link, Poisson distribution, robust variance estimators, and seasonality adjustment.ResultsThe publication of clinical trials was associated with 12% increase in the use of first-generation ARBs in Japan, and the subsequent ARB-related scandals was associated with 19% decrease. The decrease in the use of first-generation ARBs after the scandals was greater than the increase in their use after the publication of clinical-trial results. The net effect of the two exposures was a 9% decrease in the use of first-generation ARBs.ConclusionsThe scandals were associated with decrease in the use of first-generation ARBs, and that decrease was greater than the increase associated with the publication of “successful” clinical trials, making the net effect not zero but negative.