- The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
- Internal Medicine (ISSN:09182918)
- pp.5172-20, (Released:2020-07-28)
Objective This case series aimed to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). Methods We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients with chronic dizziness in our department, and tracked the percentage of PPPD, the age and sex, disorder duration, exacerbating factors for dizziness, and duration of momentary worsening dizziness. We also examined the duration of momentary worsening dizziness in cases of depression, anxiety disorder, and somatic symptom disorder. Results Among 229 patients with chronic dizziness, 14.4% (33/229) met the diagnostic criteria for PPPD. PPPD was the second most common disorder of patients with chronic dizziness after depression. The median age of patients with PPPD was 75 (75.8% female) and the median duration of the disorder was 60 months (range: 3-360 months). The exacerbating factors were motion without regard to direction or position (90.9%), upright posture (66.7%), and exposure to moving visual stimuli or complex visual patterns (30.3%). While the duration of momentary worsening dizziness was less than 10 minutes in 93.9% of patients with PPPD, the duration in patients with depression, anxiety disorder, and somatic symptom disorder were 3.6 % (2/55), 16.1% (5/31), and 0% (0/11), respectively. When the duration was less than 10 minutes, the odds ratios of PPPD for depression and anxiety disorder were 46.5 (95% CI: 6.1-362.0) and 40.3 (95% CI: 7.4-219.3), respectively. Conclusion Short episodes of momentary worsening dizziness constitute a distinctive feature of PPPD that may be useful for differentiating PPPD from other types of psychogenic dizziness.