- 日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
- vol.55, pp.45-57, 2012
This paper examines the process of the establishment of municipal Korean schools in Japan. These Korean schools were started in 1949 in cities with a significant resident Korean population. The study of the establishment of municipal Korean schools provides a better understanding of the characteristics of public education in postwar Japan, and of Korean children's educational experiences. This paper not only reveals the conditions of the establishment of municipal Korean schools (school name, location, period of existence), it also shows the legal framework that made it possible to establish these schools. In particular, this paper considers Ministry of Education policies, the awareness of GHQ, and countermeasures taken by several local governments. In 1948, the Ministry of Education declared that all school age Korean children must attend schools prescribed by Article 1 of the School Education Law. Just after that, in 1949, the Ministry of Education closed down almost all Korean educational facilities, including schools approved by Article 1. As a result of this, municipal schools had to accept Korean students. To satisfy this influx of Korean students, some local governments requested permission to use the closed schools' premises as branch schools. In response to their request, the Ministry of Education issued a memorandum permitting the establishment of municipal branch schools as an exception to the rule. Under this memorandum, some local governments, for various reasons, established municipal Korean schools between 1949 and 1950.