- 日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
- vol.58, pp.6-18, 2015
This paper examines the essential qualities of educational policy during the early Meiji Period,focusing on the relation between education and the reform of Civil Government. Previous studies of Meiji educational system and policy regard Education System Order of 1872 as the starting point of modern educational policy, and assessed the Order itself as a product of intellectualism and literal translation of Western knowledge, and therefore undifferentiated, unrealistic, and/or arbitrary in nature. However, these studies did not consider the real intent and actions of officials involved in determining educational policy, particularly those of Oki Takato, who was the primary educational policymaker of the early Meiji period. Through an analysis of Oki Takato's intent and actions, this study provides context for early Meiji educational policy, Education System Order of 1872, and educational policy. The results are as follows:<br/>1) Oki recognized the importance of education for all people, through Civil Government in TokyoPrefecture. He determined the order of importance for various matters of Civil Government, andcarried them out, step by step, in a practical manner. He was appointed to the Ministry of CivilGovernment (Minbusho) by the Meiji government, and considered how to encourage all people to understand the benefits of learning, and insisted that it was very important to establish elementary schools, to provide learning opportunities for girls, as well as opportunities for learning business methods throughout Japan.<br/>2) For Oki, the first Minister of Education, Education System Order of 1872 was nothing more than a first step. After it was promulgated, he immediately suggested that it should be revised, based on local government officials' input, and re-emphasized that the top priority was the establishment of elementary schools.