著者
樋浦 郷子
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 : 教育史学会紀要 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.84-96, 2014-10-01

To date, there is only a limited amount of scholarship on the study of Imperial Portraits in Imperial Japan's colonies. In addition, extant research on the subject is predominantly based on the assumption that Imperial Portraits were distributed throughout colonial schools as they were in Japan proper due to 'assimilation' policy. As a result, their conclusions at times fall short of the realities of colonial school life. In other words, it is important to abstain from such an assumption when considering the realities of colonial school life. First, this paper reveals that the distribution of Imperial Portraits to Korean schools was first planned by Governor General Minami Jiro. This project was actually related more to the introduction of the 1938 Korean Voluntary Military Service Law than the third revision of the Korean Education Law of the same year. Second, this paper carefully examines how Imperial Portraits were actually distributed as well as how principals, teachers' associations and schools responded to them. Third, this paper shows that it was almost impossible for Chosun Government General to distribute the portraits to elementary schools for Japanese residents in Korea, let alone to all Korean elementary schools because of the distrust of Korean-Japanese mutual antagonism, and the excessive anxiety held by the Japanese residing in Korean local communities. In conclusion, this paper hypothesizes why Governor General Minami persisted in the unprecedented distribution of Imperial Portraits to Korean schools.
著者
樋浦 郷子
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.110-122, 2006-10-01 (Released:2017-06-01)

During the prewar era, many Japanese shrines were built in Japan's colonies, such as Korea and Taiwan. This paper examines the problem of forcing the local residents to go and pay homage to the shrines and to worship the Japanese imperial deities that were supposedly housed therein. The focus of this paper is how Chosen Jingu, built in 1925 and established as a highly-ranked shrine in the Japanese shrines hierarchy, and schools collaborated together to compel elementary school students to visit the shrine. In order to analyze this issue, this paper will examine the case of Kangakusai, one of Chosen Jingu's rituals. In Kangakusai, Chosen Jingu distributed moral training textbooks (Shushin) for first graders in almost all elementary schools in Keijo district, where Chosen Jingu was located. All of the students who received a textbook from the shrine had to go there in order to thank the imperial deities. This shows how shrine rituals like Kangakusai played an important role in the compulsion of students' worship at Chosen Jingu. Behind the enforcement of Kangakusai, one finds the leadership of the chief priests of Chosen Jingu, such as Takamatsu Shiro. In explaining what Takamatsu and other priests did, this paper demonstrates the active role played by shrine priests. They did not merely follow Japanese Government General directives but took a leading role at times in the enforcing the "Japanization" of Koreans. In addition, the mutual reinforcing relationship between shrines and schools enabled primary school students to be the most influenced sector of Korean society. In Japan, much research on colonial shrines focus on the compulsion of shrine worship from the late 1930s to 1945. However, this issue did not begin in the 1930s. This paper seeks to shed additional light on colonial shrine worship prior to the 1930s through an analysis of Kangakusai.
著者
高瀬 幸恵
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.58-70, 2007-10-01 (Released:2017-06-01)

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how government enlightenment policy was implemented in elementary education in 1930's Japan through an examination of the introduction of Shinto shrine worship to elementary school discipline. In order to analyze this issue, this paper investigates the 1930's Mino Mission Affair that took place in Ogaki city, a city in southwestern Gifu Prefecture. The affair centered on the refusal of elementary school students who belonged to Mino Mission to participate in Shinto shrine worship as a school activity. Mino Mission was established by Sadie Lea Weidner (1875〜1939) as an independent mission without a particular power base. There are already several studies of this affair that clarify the progress of the affair itself. However, these studies fail to analyze the affair as it relates to government enlightenment policy. This paper focuses on the encouragement of shrine worship by the Ministry of Education as well as local government that provided the backdrop for the affair. This paper makes the following conclusions: First, the encouragement of shrine worship was facilitated in Gifu by the close ties of the Gifu-ken Kyoiku-kai (the association of education in Gifu) and the Gifu-ken Shintoku-kai (the association of Shinto in Gifu). The manager of the school affairs section of the Gifu prefectural administration concurrently held the post of president of the Gifu-ken Kyoiku-kai and the Gifu-ken Shintoku-kai. Second, at this time, there was common understanding in the Gifu-ken Kyoiku-kai that the Imperial Rescript on Education was ineffective in addressing elementary school discipline. Shrine worship was seen as one method of instilling discipline into elementary education.
著者
松尾 由希子
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 : 教育史学会紀要 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.6-18, 2014-10-01

This study examines the mutual influence of adoption and the collection and transfer of family libraries during Late Edo and Meiji Restoration period. This paper is a case study of Nakamura Tokai (中村東海), a Shinto priest and twice adopted. This study reveals three points: First, both Tokai's natal and adoptive families' libraries were enriched through his adoption. Tokai's natal family and his adoptive family shared several commonalities, such as family occupation, status, and cultural attainment When Tokai joined his adoptive family he brought books with him, thus enriching his adoptive family's library. Furthermore, Tokai's natal family's library also increased after the adoption by borrowing books from the adoptive family. Second, adoption served as a means of expanding both families' human network, which was intertwined with their library collections. Both families gained a new human network which they were able to use to gain additional books. Third, Tokai's human and library network was composed of families of similar backgrounds; they lived in the same area, had the same family occupation (Shinto priesthood), had cultivated similar levels of intellectual and cultural attainment, etc. Through their continued relationship of book exchange, Tokai's families built up relationships of trust, facilitated through the practice of adoption.
著者
湯川 文彦
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, pp.6-18, 2015

This paper examines the essential qualities of educational policy during the early Meiji Period,focusing on the relation between education and the reform of Civil Government. Previous studies of Meiji educational system and policy regard Education System Order of 1872 as the starting point of modern educational policy, and assessed the Order itself as a product of intellectualism and literal translation of Western knowledge, and therefore undifferentiated, unrealistic, and/or arbitrary in nature. However, these studies did not consider the real intent and actions of officials involved in determining educational policy, particularly those of Oki Takato, who was the primary educational policymaker of the early Meiji period. Through an analysis of Oki Takato's intent and actions, this study provides context for early Meiji educational policy, Education System Order of 1872, and educational policy. The results are as follows:<br/>1) Oki recognized the importance of education for all people, through Civil Government in TokyoPrefecture. He determined the order of importance for various matters of Civil Government, andcarried them out, step by step, in a practical manner. He was appointed to the Ministry of CivilGovernment (Minbusho) by the Meiji government, and considered how to encourage all people to understand the benefits of learning, and insisted that it was very important to establish elementary schools, to provide learning opportunities for girls, as well as opportunities for learning business methods throughout Japan.<br/>2) For Oki, the first Minister of Education, Education System Order of 1872 was nothing more than a first step. After it was promulgated, he immediately suggested that it should be revised, based on local government officials' input, and re-emphasized that the top priority was the establishment of elementary schools.
著者
和崎 光太郎
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 : 教育史学会紀要 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.19-31, 2012

On This paper re-examines the discourse of 'anguished youth' in 1900s. As a result, this paper reveals how the concept of youth was transformed into the premise of 'anguished youth.' The first section of this paper explains the origin and the conditions of 'anguished youth' in 1900s Japan. There was an increase in elite 'youth' who had time to anguish, the infiltration of the notion to 'anguish', and the birth of Shuyo theory. Moreover, this section shows that 'anguished youth' continued from the advent of Chogyu Takayama as the embodiment of 'anguished youth' until Kumajiro Kiyama in 1908. Section two considers how 'anguished youth' became a social problem after the suicide of Misao Fujimura in 1903. While there have been many variations on the concept of 'anguished youth,' the one common them was that 'anguished youth' was the failure of 'youth', even though these 'youth' went on to become capable 'citizens.' Section three explains how middle school students, as well as higher school students around the time of the Russo-Japanese War were essentially 'anguished youth.' In this context, 'youth' were defined not as 'those with something to look forward to' but as 'those who should cope.''Coping' was established as 'education' by order of the 1906 Ministry of Education Instruction No.1.
著者
井上 美香子
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.84-96, 2007-10-01 (Released:2017-06-01)

The purpose of the study is to reexamine the process that led to the revision of "articles concerning General Education" in 1950 (Thereafter, "the revision of 1950") and the estimation of the Committee on General Education. The Committee had the responsibility of leading the introduction of General Education during postwar university reform. It has been acknowledged that the Committee on General Education, as well as acting Committee Adviser Thomas H. MacGrail, strove for the introduction of General Education. For this reason, the revision of 1950 is considered to be the embodiment of the principle of General Education, as well as the result of the Committee's efforts. Until now, the details of the process that led to the revision of 1950 have been considered only through material from the "Proceedings of the Fifth General Session". This paper will consider the revision of 1950 through the study of material that has not previously been considered, namely the "Proceedings of the Committee on General Education, " held in the archives of the Japanese University Accreditation Association and GHQ/SCAP RECORDS. MacGrail expected the Committee to devise the revision of 1950 to thoroughly reform courses in three equal fields: cultural sciences, social sciences, and natural sciences. However, the Committee did not accept the "Recommendation" from MacGrail. The Committee's primary concern with the revision of 1950 was how to ensure a certain level of university discretion in the application of the "articles concerning General Education." At this point, MacGrail changed his recommendation into an order at the conference held with CIE concerning the overall revision of university standards. As a result, the "final draft" of the Committee was rejected and MacGrail himself carried out the revision of "articles concerning General Education." Considering the circumstances, the Committee on General Education was actually the chief obstacle in the implementation of MacGrail's recommendation. This meant that the Committee thought that discretion was an important element of university education. In this way, the problem was that CIE, MacGrail and the Committee on General Education held different views about university education. This was the main issue involved in the 1950 revision of "articles concerning General Education."
著者
平野 亮
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 : 教育史学会紀要 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, pp.84-96, 2013-10-01

The purpose of this paper is to examine phrenological system of "faculties" and to point out its significance in the history of education. While phrenology was very popular and favored by many educators in the West in 19th century, it tends to have been overlooked in the studies of educational history because it is typical example of pseudo-science. However, as a number of phrenologists affirmed, the department in which Phrenology was destined to produce the happiest results was education. That is because phrenological concept of faculty enabled them to apply the theory to the practice. Needless to say, the concept of faculty, or ability, is a subject of great importance to education. In this paper, phrenology and education are discussed from the perspective of historical formation of the concept of faculty. The theory known as phrenology originated with German physician F. J. Gall (1758-1828). According to the basic tenets of Gall's system of cerebral localization, one could read the intellectual aptitudes and character traits through an examination of the shape of the head. While Gall never approved the term "Phrenology," his system was popularized by J. G. Spurzheim (1776-1832), his former assistant, under the name of phrenology. Phrenology had a profound influence on the development of some of the modern sciences. Spurzheim modified Gall's system tactically and critically. At first he denied Gall's nomenclature and renamed most of the faculties. Secondly, he divided and subdivided the class of mental faculties, according to the common practice of natural history at that time. In addition, Spurzheim stressed the two following points: (1) Every phrenological faculty can be developed through education. (2) No faculty in itself is bad, but can be misused. Indeed, Spurzheim was responsible for the establishment of phrenology as faculty psychology, and his idea of educability led the study of phrenology to focus on education. As he explained, in phrenology, education was faculty-oriented; that is, education entailed working on the mind and body of man to excite, exercise, guide and determine the good uses, and to prevent the abuses of different faculties. By focusing on the phrenological concept of faculty, this paper shows that it created a fundamental model of discourse in modern education.