著者
Kenichi Komabayashi Junji Seto Shizuka Tanaka Yu Suzuki Tatsuya Ikeda Noriko Onuki Keiko Yamada Tadayuki Ahiko Hitoshi Ishikawa Katsumi Mizuta
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.413-418, 2018-11-30 (Released:2018-11-22)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
28 35

The incidence of modified measles (M-Me), characterized by milder symptoms than those of typical measles (T-Me), has been increasing in Japan. However, the outbreak dominated by M-Me cases has not been thoroughly investigated worldwide. The largest importation-related outbreak of measles with genotype D8 occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, from March to April 2017. This phenomenon was observed after Japan had achieved measles elimination in 2015. We confirmed 60 cases by detecting the genome of the measles virus (MeV). Among the cases, 38 were M-Me and 22 were T-Me. Thirty-nine (65.0%) patients were 20–39 years of age. Three out of 7 primary cases produced 50 transmissions, of which each patient caused 9–25 transmissions. These patients were 22–31 years old and were not vaccinated. Moreover, they developed T-Me and kept contact with the public during their symptomatic periods. Considering that M-Me is generally caused by vaccine failure, some individuals in Japan may have insufficient immunity for MeV. Accordingly, additional doses of measles vaccine may be necessary in preventing measles importation and endemicity among individuals aged 20–39 years. Furthermore, to accurately and promptly diagnose individuals with measles, particularly those who can be considered as primary cases, efforts must be exerted to detect all measles cases using epidemiological and genetic approaches in countries where measles elimination had been achieved.
著者
Junji Seto Yoko Aoki Kenichi Komabayashi Yoko Ikeda Mika Sampei Naomi Ogawa Yumiko Uchiumi Shunji Fujii Masami Chiba Emiko Suzuki Tatsuya Takahashi Keiko Yamada Yoshiko Otani Yoshihiro Ashino Kyoko Araki Takeo Kato Hitoshi Ishikawa Tatsuya Ikeda Hideaki Abe Tadayuki Ahiko Katsumi Mizuta
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.6, pp.522-529, 2021-11-22 (Released:2021-11-22)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
2 6

Public health interventions have played an important role in controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a rapidly spreading infectious disease. To contribute to future COVID-19 countermeasures, we aimed to verify the results of the countermeasures employed by public health centers (PHCs) against the first wave of COVID-19 in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan (Yamagata). Between January and May 2020, 1,253 patients suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection were invited for testing. Simultaneously, based on retrospective contact tracings, PHCs investigated the infection sources and transmission routes of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and tested 928 contacts. Consequently, 69 cases were confirmed between March 31 and May 4, 58 of whom were from among the contacts (84.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 75.5–92.7). The spread of infection was triggered in cases harboring epidemiological links outside Yamagata. Subsequently, the number of cases rapidly increased. However, PHCs identified epidemiological links in 61 (88.4%; 95% CI 80.8–96.0) of the 69 cases, and transmission chains up to the fifth generation. Finally, the spread of infection ended after approximately one month. Our results indicate that the identification of infection sources and active case finding from contacts based on retrospective contact tracing was likely to be an effective strategy in ending the first wave of COVID-19 in Yamagata.
著者
Kazuhiro Kawahira Hironori Imano Keiko Yamada Yukiko Takao Yasuko Mori Hideo Asada Yoshinobu Okuno Koichi Yamanishi Hiroyasu Iso
出版者
Japan Epidemiological Association
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.8, pp.370-375, 2022-08-05 (Released:2022-08-05)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 3

Background: The impact of body mass index on incidence of herpes zoster is unclear. This study investigated whether body mass index was associated with a history of herpes zoster and incidence during a 3-year follow-up, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan.Methods: In total, 12,311 individuals were included in the cross-sectional analysis at baseline, of whom 1,818 with a history of herpes zoster were excluded from the incidence analysis, leaving 10,493 individuals. Body mass index (kg/m2) was classified into three categories (underweight: <18.5; normal: 18.5 to <25; and overweight: ≥25). To evaluate the risk of herpes zoster, we used a logistic regression model for prevalence and a Cox proportional hazard regression model for incidence.Results: Being overweight or underweight was not associated with herpes zoster prevalence at baseline. The multivariate hazard ratios of herpes zoster incidence for overweight versus normal-weight groups were 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.51–0.90) in all participants, and 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.83) in women, with no significant difference for men.Conclusion: Being overweight was associated with a lower incidence of herpes zoster than being normal weight in older Japanese women.
著者
Keiko Yamada Nagisa Mori Mina Kashiwabara Sakiko Yasuda Rumi Horie Hiroshi Yamato Loic Garçon Francisco Armada
出版者
日本疫学会
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.7, pp.496-504, 2015-07-05 (Released:2015-07-05)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
6

Background: Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment.Methods: Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews.Results: Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions.Conclusions: The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry.