- 名古屋大學教育學部紀要. 教育心理学科 (ISSN:03874796)
- vol.43, pp.243-253, 1996-12
This article is a review of the research of Wason's four-cards task, which was focused on the research from 1966 to 1979 as the first half of it. In the introduction, we described what was the background of the research and what is the four-cards task. In the chapter of "the dawn of the research", it was mentioned that the percentage of correct response by adults was very low, which was caused by the "confirmation bias". And, it was discussed that it was important to think logically for solving problems, and that it was effective (a) to give some hints to understand the logic of the problem and (b) to use the concrete theme in a rule (that is called "thematic effect") for logical reasoning. Especially, (b) was regarded as more important. In the chapter of "the mature period of the research", it is described that (b) was influenced by the relationship among terms in a rule, and that the response pattern of abstract task was varied with the expression of rules. "Matching bias", that arises by negation in a rule, was noteworhty because (a) response patterns of subjects could be predicted by it, and (b) it is applicable to abstract task. Then, it was tried to explain the process of thinking process as the "dual processes". It was pointed out, however, that (a) matching bias didn't contain the explanation about the process of solving concrete task, and (b) it is hard to appear in some rules. Then, especially for (b), it was discussed that some rule-expressions that agree with the order of human reasoning, is more effective.