- 国際基督教大学学報. I-A, 教育研究 = Educational Studies
- no.41, pp.147-170, 1999-03-31
This study of culture and personality is aimed at investigating the distinguishing personality characteristics of farming villagers and fishing villagers by adopting the method of example in regard to their regular religious festivals. Religious rites were chosen because they are considered to be the reflection of each of these groups belief in souls and to shed light on their basic individual consciousness. Characteristics of farmers' faith in gods and their personality are shown as follows. Each stage of the interaction between the god of rice fields and fanners shows their personality as multiplex. They place the highest value on the idea of regeneration. The ideas of inheritance/succession and repetition are highly regarded and cherished. Having a strong tendency to detest uncleaness/ "kegare", and above all death "kegare", they consider the performance of ritual exorcism extremely important. The farmers communicate with the spirits or souls of their departed ancestors and their continual dependence on their protection is paralleled by their strong attachment toward each family ancestor. Characteristics of fishermen' s faith and their personality are shown as follows. The interaction between fishermen and the guardians of their ships or beliefs in their gods suggests the rationale they appply to life and a new beginning which will be an improvement on what was lost previously. The many-sided dedication toward gods, especially the god-Ebisu, including the dead body, indicates their multilateral and versatile characters. Their belief in gods instills within them a broad-mindedness in regard to receiving both holiness and natural vulgarity which are dualistic qualities imparted from the sea. Their frequent wish for divine protection during their many voyages and the abundant blessings and offerings of thanks which they bestow upon their various gods such as the god-Ujigami, the god-Ryujin, the god-Ebisu, and so, for granting them the luck of big catches, testifies to their enthusiasm for their beliefs and their devout piety. They cherish the idea of the mysterious oceanic power to purify. Their attitude toward death is indicative of how they considered it as less unclean than farmers do. Fishermen regard the 'kegare' of childbirth as more impure and require a strict observance of the abstinence and segregation from everyday life.