- 国士舘大学体育研究所報 = The annual reports of health physical education and sport science (ISSN:03892247)
- vol.35, pp.19-27, 2017-03-31
In sports, athletes are divided by sex for most events. Since 1966, various methods have been used in testing to confirm sex. In some instances where competitors have been disqualified from women’s events, however, that testing has violated personal privacy and its results have yielded information unknown even to the competitors. Currently, the criteria for women are set based on levels of testosterone produced in the body, but the obvious reality is that there are no absolute standards that allow for clear distinctions between men and women. Various sexual identities are currently recognized, and systems are being developed to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Division of the sexes is considered a given in sports, but new systems of categories will probably need to be designed for sports as well. This paper presents a tentative proposal regarding competition formats as a basis for future discussions. Systems such as open categories that are open to both sexes and categories that are not segregated by sex could enable sports participants to approach their bodies and their sexual identities in a positive manner.