著者
Shigeyuki Asano
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.1-16, 2012 (Released:2012-06-06)
参考文献数
94
被引用文献数
37 107

In this review, representative types of granulomatous lymphadenitis (GLA) are described. GLA can be classified as noninfectious GLA and infectious GLA. Noninfectious GLA includes sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reaction. The cause of sarcoidosis remains unknown, but it has good prognosis. Sarcoid-like reaction, which is considered to be a biological defense mechanism, is observed in regional lymph nodes with many underlying diseases. Infectious GLA can be classified as suppurative lymphadenitis (LA) and nonsuppurative LA. Suppurative LA generally shows follicular hyperplasia and sinus histiocytosis in the early phase. In tularemia and cat scratch disease, monocytoid B lymphocytes (MBLs) with T cells and macrophages contribute to the formation of granuloma. However, none of the epithelioid cell granulomas of Yersinia LA contains MBLs like in cat scratch disease. In addition, almost all have a central abscess in granulomas induced by Gram-negative bacteria. In terms of the lymph nodes, tularemia and cat scratch disease are apt to affect the axillary and cervical regions while Yersinia LA affects the mesenteric lymph node. Nonsuppurative LA includes tuberculosis and BCG-histiocytosis. These are induced by delayed allergic reaction of M. tuberculosis. Tuberculosis LA mainly appears in the cervical lymph node. Organisms are histologically detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining in the necrotic area. Toxoplasmosis is also a nonsuppurative protozoan infection (Toxoplasma gondii). In toxoplasma LA, MBLs can also be seen, but round and organized, well-formed granulomas are not found in this disease. Furthermore, necrosis is not induced and there are no accompanying neutrophils, eosinophils and fibrosis. GLA described above is associated with characteristic histological findings. An accurate pathological diagnosis using the above findings can lead to precise treatment. [J Clin Exp Hematopathol 52(1) : 1-16, 2012]
著者
Yuko Kaneko Masaru Kojima Yoshimasa Nakazato Nobuhide Masawa
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.179-184, 2012 (Released:2012-12-22)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1

The tonsils are uncommonly affected by granulomatous inflammation. This study attempted to clarify the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings and presence or absence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in tonsilar granulomatous inflammation. A total of 537 consecutive specimens from tonsillectomies performed at Dokkyo University School of Medicine between 1999 and March 2012 were reexamined. Using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections, histological, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization (ISH) studies were performed. Epithelioid granulomas (EPGs) were identified in the tonsils in 16 (3.0%) cases. There were 8 males and 8 females, aged 4 to 57 years (mean, 23). In 11 patients, EPGs were located in the germinal center (GC), whereas they were located in the interfollicular area as well as GC in the remaining 5 cases. Three types of EPG have been delineated : (i) poorly demarcated small epithelioid cell granulomas (n = 6) ; (ii) well-demarcated non-caseating sarcoid-like granulomas (n = 5) ; and (iii) EPGs within GC showing suppurations at the center (n = 5). An ISH study demonstrated EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER)+ cells in 4 lesions. The present study demonstrated that the majority of EPGs were located in the GC and tonsilar EPGs showed histological variation. [J Clin Exp Hematopathol 52(3) : 179-184, 2012]
著者
Tomoka Ikeda Yuka Gion Tadashi Yoshino Yasuharu Sato
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.64-71, 2019 (Released:2019-06-28)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
23 58

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCUs) were first described as a lymphoproliferative disorder in 2010. Clinically, EBVMCUs are shallow, sharply circumscribed, unifocal mucosal or cutaneous ulcers that occur in immunosuppressed patients, including those with advanced age-associated immunosenescence, iatrogenic immunosuppression, primary immune disorders, and HIV/AIDS-associated immune deficiencies. In general, patients exhibit indolent disease progression and spontaneous regression. Histologically, EBVMCUs are characterized by the proliferation of EBV-positive, variable-sized, atypical B-cells. According to conventional histopathologic criteria, EBVMCUs may diagnosed as lymphomas. However, EBVMCUs are recognized as pseudomalignant lesions because they spontaneously regress without anti-cancer treatment. Therefore, overtreatment must be carefully avoided and multilateral differentiation is important. In this article, we reviewed previously reported EBVMCUs focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects in comparison with other EBV-positive B-cell neoplasms.
著者
Hideto Iwafuchi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.68-86, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
93
被引用文献数
3 10

Bone marrow failure (BMF) is a rare but life-threatening disorder that usually manifests as (pan)cytopenia. BMF can be caused by a variety of diseases, but inherited BMF (IBMF) syndromes are a clinically important cause, especially in children. IBMF syndromes are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by BMF, physical abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancy. An accurate diagnosis is critical, as disease-specific management, surveillance, and genetic counselling are required for each patient. The major differential diagnoses of IBMF syndromes are acquired aplastic anemia (AA) and refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC). These diseases have overlapping features, such as BM hypocellularity and/or dysplastic changes, which make the differential diagnosis challenging. RCC has been defined as a histomorphologically distinct entity. Therefore, understanding the BM histopathology of these diseases is essential for the differential diagnosis. However, the BM histopathological features have not been characterized in detail, as descriptions of BM histopathology are very limited due to the rarity of the diseases. This review provides a detailed description of the BM histopathology in cases of RCC, AA, and the four most common IBMF syndromes: Fanconi anemia (FA), dysketatosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). An overview, including the clinical features and diagnosis, is also provided.
著者
Makka Adam Yonas Bekuretsion Amha Gebremedhin Anna Kwiecinska Rawleigh Howe Beyene Petros Mats Jerkeman
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.4, pp.230-239, 2023-12-26 (Released:2023-12-26)
参考文献数
60

Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been recognized for its ability to transform B lymphocytes and for its association with different types of cancers including Hodgkin lymphoma. In addition, EBV may also modulate the microenvironment of HL. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBV among HL cases in Ethiopia and to assess the tissue cellular composition of EBV-related and EBV-unrelated cases. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of 126 consecutive cases of classical HL (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL) from a tertiary cancer centre, Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and evaluated a panel of immunohistochemical markers. The quantification of immune cells was performed using HALO 2.3, a platform for image analysis from Indica Lab Inc. A total of 77/126 (61.1%) of HL cases expressed LMP1/EBER. Infiltration of CD8+, T-bet+ and FoxP3+ cells was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-related CHL, with P values of <0.001, <0.001 and <0.016, respectively. In contrast, the expression of PD1 was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-unrelated CHL cases (P < 0.001). Unlike in Western countries, the majority of HL cases in Ethiopia were associated with EBV. As FoxP3+ and PD1-expressing cells are thought to participate in down regulation of the immune response by different mechanisms, this finding highlights the previously unrecognized possibility that distinct immunosuppressive mechanisms may be ongoing within EBV positive and negative HL types. This may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
著者
Shuntaro Saito Tsutomu Takeuchi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.4, pp.145-155, 2019 (Released:2019-12-22)
参考文献数
108
被引用文献数
13 17

Methotrexate (MTX) is known as a first-line synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the risk of LPD development increases by RA inflammation itself, observation of spontaneous regression of LPD after MTX discontinuation lead to the theory of lymphomagenic role of MTX. In this review, we focused on the several immune response involved in LPD that developed under MTX administration in RA patients.
著者
Yoshito Nishimura Midori Filiz Nishimura Yasuharu Sato
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.21037, (Released:2022-04-27)
参考文献数
59
被引用文献数
5

Since thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal insufficiency, and organomegaly (TAFRO) syndrome was first proposed in 2010, there has been considerable progress in this area, particularly regarding its association with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD). TAFRO syndrome is a heterogeneous category with a constellation of symptoms that can develop in the setting of infection, rheumatologic disorder, malignancy, and iMCD. Now, iMCD with TAFRO symptoms is subtyped as iMCD-TAFRO. However, confusion between TAFRO syndrome and iMCD-TAFRO remains. In this article, we discuss the current understanding and future research agenda of TAFRO syndrome and iMCD-TAFRO from the perspective of its new validated international definition.
著者
Yoshito Nishimura Asami Nishikori Haruki Sawada Torrey Czech Yuki Otsuka Midori Filiz Nishimura Hiroki Mizuno Naoki Sawa Shuji Momose Kumiko Ohsawa Fumio Otsuka Yasuharu Sato
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.21038, (Released:2022-03-05)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
3

Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a systemic disorder characterized by systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Some patients with iMCD are positive for autoantibodies, although their significance and relationship with specific associated autoimmune diseases are unclear. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features of iMCD patients focusing on autoantibodies. Among 63 iMCD patients in our database, 19 were positive for at least one autoantibody. Among the 19, we identified five with plasma cell type (PC)-iMCD lymph node histopathology and positive anti-phospholipid antibodies. These patients were likely to have thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal insufficiency, organomegaly (TAFRO) symptoms, and thrombotic events. The present study suggests that patients with undiagnosed or atypical autoimmune diseases, including anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), were treated for iMCD. APS may present with thrombocytopenia or even multi-organ failure, which overlap with clinical presentations of iMCD. Due to differences in the treatment regimen and follow-up, recognition of the undiagnosed autoimmune disease process in those suspected of iMCD is essential. Our study highlights the importance of complete exclusion of differential diagnoses in patients with iMCD in their diagnostic workup.
著者
Toshihiko Matsuo Takehiro Tanaka
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.4, pp.168-174, 2019 (Released:2019-12-22)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1 7

Primary intraocular lymphomas frequently develop into central nervous system lymphomas and vice versa. This study reviewed 22 consecutive patients with primary intraocular lymphoma diagnosed by immunostaining of vitrectomy cell blocks, and examined whether they developed central nervous system lymphoma. Seventeen patients developed central nervous system lymphoma: 3 patients developed intraocular and central nervous system lymphoma simultaneously, 9 patients developed central nervous system lymphoma 1 month to 5 years (median, 3 months) after intraocular lymphoma, and 5 patients developed central nervous system lymphoma preceding the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma by 3 months to 9 years and 8 months (median, 1.5 years). In contrast, 5 patients did not develop central nervous system lymphoma: 2 patients did not develop local recurrence or central nervous system lymphoma in the follow-up period of 5 years and 11 years, respectively, after vitrectomy alone without additional local or systemic treatment. The remaining 3 patients with intraocular lymphoma had insufficient follow-up periods to determine the prognosis. The results of CD5 immunostaining of vitrectomy specimens were found in pathology reports of 8 patients: 3 patients with CD5-positive large cells and 4 patients with CD5-negative large cells developed central nervous system lymphoma. In summary, only a small number of patients did not develop central nervous system lymphoma based on long-term follow-up after vitrectomy alone. CD5 was not a marker of central nervous system involvement in this study population.
著者
Hideyo Fujiwara
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.45-50, 2018 (Released:2018-07-11)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
6

In 2017, the revised World Health Organization was published. Regarding myeloproliferative neoplasms, histological findings of bone marrow biopsy is becoming more important for diagnosis. This article highlights particularly the morphology of megakaryocytes and evaluation of myelofibrosis for pathological diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry which can detect somatic mutation.
著者
Yanyan Han Takuro Igawa Kyohei Ogino Asami Nishikori Yuka Gion Tadashi Yoshino Yasuharu Sato
出版者
The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.19037, (Released:2020-02-08)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
8

Plasma cell-type Castleman disease (PCD) is a rare idiopathic atypical lymphoproliferative disorder. It is difficult to differentiate between PCD and IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) based on histology alone. As PCD often presents with abundant hemosiderin deposition, lymph node lesions obtained from 22 PCD patients and 12 IgG4-RD patients were analyzed using Prussian blue staining to clarify whether hemosiderin deposition is effective in distinguishing between these two diseases. The analysis disclosed that hemosiderin was more densely deposited in PCD than in IgG4-RD. The median number of Prussian blue-positive cells ± standard deviation (SD) in PCD and IgG4-RD cases was 13 ± 36 cells/3HPFs and 4 ± 8 cells/3HPFs (P = 0.034), respectively. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between hemosiderin deposition and levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and anemia-related biomarkers. We found that hemosiderin deposition was significantly correlated with the level of serum CRP (P = 0.045); however, no significant correlation was observed between hemosiderin deposition and serum IL-6 levels (P = 0.204). A non-significant positive correlation was observed between hemosiderin deposition and serum hemoglobin levels (P=0.09). Furthermore, no significant correlation was observed between hemosiderin deposition and serum iron levels (P = 0.799). In conclusion, hemosiderin deposition characteristically observed in PCD may be related to the inflammatory aggressiveness of the disease and could be used for its differential diagnosis.
著者
Hiroaki Tanaka Ikuo Sakuma Shinichiro Hashimoto Yusuke Takeda Shio Sakai Toshiyuki Takagi Takanori Shimura Chiaki Nakaseko
出版者
日本リンパ網内系学会
雑誌
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology (ISSN:13464280)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.67-69, 2012 (Released:2012-06-06)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
9 25

It has recently been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative lymphoma during or after cytotoxic therapy occurs after the use of rituximab and stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies. However, clinical data on HBV reactivation in multiple myeloma patients have not been extensively reported. This is the first reported case of HBV reactivation in an HBsAg-negative myeloma patient treated with bortezomib (BOR) as salvage therapy and not stem cell transplantation. By closely monitoring HBV-DNA and early administration of entecavir, severe hepatitis was avoided and BOR therapy was continued. We suggest the importance of close monitoring of HBV-DNA for transplant-ineligible myeloma patients treated with BOR as salvage therapy. [J Clin Exp Hematopathol 52(1) : 67-69, 2012]