for the STrategy of Optimal carotid revascularization for high-risk Patients of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome (STOP CHS) study group
- The Japanese Society for Neuroendovascular Therapy
- Journal of Neuroendovascular Therapy (ISSN:18824072)
- pp.oa.2017-0009, (Released:2017-03-27)
Objective: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Therefore, neurointerventionalists in Japan commonly stratify the risk for CHS preprocedurally in CAS candidates using various imaging tests that are available, and sometimes performed preventive methods against CHS, such as staged angioplasty (SAP), undersized-balloon angioplasty followed by delayed CAS. In the current study, we used a nationwide questionnaire survey to clarify the current status of the periprocedural management against CHS and the 30-day outcomes of patients with a high risk of CHS after undergoing CAS or endovascular carotid revascularization procedures, such as SAP or stand-alone angioplasty. This study specifically analyzed the data for the periprocedural management against CHS.Materials and Methods: Between June and August 2014, questionnaires were emailed to all of the neurointerventional specialists certified by the Japanese Society for Neuroendovascular Therapy (JSNET). If two or more specialist physicians belonged to an institute, a representative physician of the institute answered the questionnaire. This study focused on 14 items of the questionnaire that were directed at examining the preprocedural imaging tests done to evaluate the risk of CHS, the periprocedural management strategies used to prevent CHS, and the postprocedural imaging tests to detect hyperperfusion phenomenon, among others.Results: Replies were obtained from 154 institutes which represented 336 JSNET-certified neurointerventional specialists. Preprocedural imaging tests done to evaluate the risk of CHS were performed in 144 institutes (93.5%), with single-photon emission CT (SPECT) the most used modality in 88.2% of the institutes. Acetazolamide challenge was performed in 114 (89.8%) of 127 institutes that used preprocedural SPECT evaluation. Of the institutes performing preprocedural CHS-risk evaluation, general anesthesia was administered during the procedure in 44.4%, periprocedural edaravone (a free radical scavenging agent) was used in 52.1%, and periprocedural strict blood pressure control was performed in 91.7%. Postprocedural intravenous anticoagulation therapy was not used for patients with a high risk of CHS in 63.2%. Postprocedural imaging tests to detect hyperperfusion phenomenon were undertaken in 99.3% of the institutes performing preprocedural CHS-risk evaluation. The leading imaging modality, SPECT, was used in 78.3%. SAP was attempted or performed in 27.1% of the institutes.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Japanese practitioners attempt to prevent CHS after carotid endovascular revascularization procedures. Most Japanese neurointerventionalists preprocedurally evaluated the risk of CHS in CAS candidates primarily using SPECT with acetazolamide challenge. The penetration rate for SAP was 27.1% of the institutes.