- マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
- vol.95, pp.143-162, 2019-07-31 (Released:2019-10-25)
The purpose of this paper is to explore how television documentaries as aparticular mode of expression were formed through an investigation of thecomposition of sound recording as a prehistory of television documentaries. By tracing the genealogy of the radio programs Man on the Street, whichstarted broadcasting during the occupation of Japan at the end of World WarII, and Social Survey, one of its spinoffs, this paper examines the formation processof television documentaries from the following three points. First, thispaper focuses on the fact that particular documentary aesthetics were importedunder the leadership of the General Headquarters (GHQ), and examine thesemodes of expression within the dynamic of broadcast policy. Second, it examineshow Japanese staff who actually produced these programs merged theirideas with the occupation army’s to create a unique form of Japanese radio documentary.Thirdly, it demonstrates how the democratic program ideas presentedby GHQ became sharply distinguished as what would be called Rokuon-Kōsei. These points are investigated from a detailed technical, historical andformal analysis. This paper presents two concluding points: 1) that opinions of socially vulnerablecommunities became newly accessible in radio broadcasting afterWorld War II and 2) that this was made possible by a brusque and minimalistediting method that was developed with the intention of broadcasting thesesubaltern opinions with little modification. This genealogically leads us to thetelevision documentary The Real Face of Japan, which was produced with anew montage theory that until then had not been done in the documentariesand culture films, and was subsequently highly praised by documentarists andcritics. Thus, this paper offers a new analytical point of view for reviewingearly television documentaries through describing the formation process of documentarymodes of expression called Rokuon-Kōsei in earlier radio documentaries.