著者
伊藤 昌亮
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.66, pp.91-110, 2005-01-31
被引用文献数
1

This paper applies a performative view, not a communicative view, to the largest online community in Japan, Channel 2 by analyzing its typical collective action called Yoshinoya Festival, from both aspects of its online communications and offline events. Behaviors in online communications are analyzed quantitatively based on the methodology of CMC studies, and those in offline events are analyzed qualitatively based on that of cultural anthropology. Then the problematic characteristics in Channel 2 are discussed.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.85, pp.205-224, 2014-07-31

Inoue (1998) pointed out differences in the reading experiences of manga between men and women. In this paper, I develop Inoue's findings by analyzing two surveys. Firstly, I present data from a "school library survey," and report the following. For instance, as boys and girls grow older, boys stop reading the monthly comic magazines, such as "Corocoro-comic," that they read in elementary school, and start reading weekly comics, such as "Shonen Jump," in junior high school. In contrast, girls change from reading the monthly girls' comic magazines, such as "Ribon," that they read in elementary school, and start reading monthly fashion magazines, such as "Seventeen," in junior high school. Secondly, a questionnaire survey on youth culture and communication was conducted in 2010 that targeted young people in Nerima-ku in Tokyo. The aim of the survey was to identify youth opinions and behavior in relation to hobbies and culture. Some of the findings in the analysis concern comics. In terms of the media, although men and women mainly read comics as collected volumes, men tend to read magazines while women do not. In terms of reading volume, men read an average of 4.8 collected volumes and 2.8 magazines per month, while women read an average of 4 collected volumes and 0.7 magazines. Additionally, it was found that there is a positive correlation between how frequently women read comics as collected volumes or magazines, and how frequently they discuss comics, go to manga stores with friends, and make friends through such discussions about comics. This correlation was not seen in the men. The survey results suggest that the culture of reading comics may be dominated by men, while for women, it is more of a subculture. It is rare for women to read comics; therefore, reading comics becomes a resource for communication.
著者
山森 宙史
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.153-172, 2013

This study aims to reexamine the historical perceptions of the Japanese comic book medium, particularly the "magazine culture" which began in the late I960s, by tracing the historical process of creating "Shinshoban comics" during the 1960s and 1970s. Prior historical studies of postwar manga have not fully examined manga comic magazines, and manga has usually been defined as one type of comic magazine, not as its own independent form of media. Accordingly, in this article, I focus on the "Shinshoban comics" that predated present-day manga comics in order to understand the transformations in the comic industry during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Unlike the manga comics of today, due to the lack of modern industry and marketing systems, Shinshoban comics were very marginalized and crossed over various manga publishing borders. However, as series of Shinshoban comics based on particular comic magazines became the dominant publication style of manga comics, they were gradually perceived to be one type of comic magazine in the comic industry. Moreover, in the political and cultural climate of that time, the publication of some Shinshoban comics was delayed while others were screened out. Some of the works filtered out of the major public companies were published by small publishers as well as Kashihon publishers, which published for book-lending shops. As a result, though Shinshoban comics were subsumed by the comic publishing industry as a part of magazine culture, they were also relatively independent and established themselves as an original publishing medium. Therefore, an investigation of the historical process of creating Shinshoban comics clarifies that the industrialization centering around comic magazines produced by the major publishers beginning in the late 1960s contained within it a complexity that gave rise to an "independent" or "derivative" media culture.
著者
佐藤 正晴
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.157-170,221-22, 1995-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)

In this paper, the author described the development of propaganda for Afro-Americans after the outbreak of the Pacific War, from the viewpoint of Japanese foreign propaganda policies, and the relations with broadcasting of"Hinomaru Hour"in Japanese shortwave. This paper consists of three chapters. In chapter I, the author explained concerns about propaganda for Afro-Americans by the Foreign Office, particularly the information in 1942, on the press. Above all, the racial problem in America is the main theme in Japanese propaganda for Afro-Americans such as their states in the army and their riot in 1943. In chapter II, the author explained that propaganda for Afro-Americans was planned to arouse public opinions in America, "Negroes Strategy in Wartime", proposed by Hikita, the foreign officer, indicates the utility of Afro-Americans as prisoners in wartime. that almost coincided with foreign propaganda policy. Secondy, Japanese propaganda for Afro-Americans has some contradictions. The Japanese propaganda mentioned generality on the one hand, while mentioning particularism on the other. Essentially, racial equality and humanism were advocated in generality, while Japanese spirits, Japanese culture and Japanese jutice were stressed in particularism. In chapter III, the author explained that the realities and the effect of shortwave for Afro-Americans. The Japanese military carried out"Hinomaru Hour"made by prisoners for Afro-Americans. The message was adressed to their families by prisoners of War. In 1944, the program was reorganized as"Humanity Calls"and"Postman Calls"which ended in failure in military interference. Hence, the author chracterized propaganda for Afro-Americans as one of the foreign propaganda policies in wartime Japan. The contradictions of propaganda for Afro-Americans is symbolic of all all of Japanese foreign propaganda.
著者
池上 賢
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.75, pp.149-167, 2009-07-31

The purpose of this study is to analyze how audiences tells and give meanings to experiences of manga including "Weekly Shonen Jump", which was the most famous manga magazine in Japan in the 1980s through the early 1990s. I focused on the master narrative which would become the frame of experience. For the method I was analyzed life-story interview data of five informants and their manga experiences. As a result, it was revealed that the reflexivity in which social discourses about media play an important roll in relationship between audience and media.
著者
津田 正太郎
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.68, pp.131-147, 2006-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to discuss why John Reith, the first Director-General of the BBC, had sympathy for fascism despite his pursuit of the independence of broadcasting from government control. In Japan, it is hardly known that his political thought was quite elitist. This paper shows that it was his elitism to make him pursue independence of the BBC from government control. Because he distrusted government elected by mass votes, he tried to establish public corporations which might be independent from it and enable elites to control the society without suffering from mass democracy.
著者
葉口 英子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, pp.116-133, 2003

The five-minute music program 'MINNA NO UTA' (Everyone's Songs), which has been broadcast on NHK since 1961, has contributed to the popularization of new children's songs. It has created about one thousand tunes, influencing musical education and popular music in Japan. This paper explores the characteristics and meanings of this program by focusing on its text as well as the processes of its production and consumption. My research involved conducting interviews with directors and distributing questionnaires to audiences. My aim is to explain the uses of this program by audiences through their everyday lives and how this TV program contributes to creating new children's songs. My conclusions are, firstly, that this program has a distinctive history that has been flexibly transforming songs into appropriate styles for children in the TV age. Secondly, these songs played a role in constructing a national collective identity for everyone (including grown-ups), especially from the 60s to the 80s, because these texts have functioned as 'national music' mediated by a state channel.
著者
峰久 和哲
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.77, pp.39-58, 2010-07-31

Japanese public opinion polls have introduced by GHQ after WWII, and they also have improved the quality much better than before by the cooperation with news organizations and mathematicians. Due to the start of election situation survey by Asahi newspaper at The House of Representatives election in 1958, public opinion functioned much important rolls with the election news by news organizations. For long time, search procedures are mainly examined by visiting each object person by examiners, however, since 1980s, each news organization attempted to use public opinion polls by telephone. After the 21 century, RDD (Random Digit Dialing) with random dialing by computers has spread. It is lower the costs and it is also easier to get survey result promptly, and then, 'Cabinet support rate' reported by more than ten news organizations each month has come and gone. However, due to the spread of cell phones, etc., this search procedure showed some limitations. Together with this fact, public opinion polls are facing huge crisis. About the issues in the society, survey object persons themselves do not form their own opinions and also do not think about the resolution, and they answer promptly to the public opinion polls. And then, the answer was easily induced by the amplification which was introduced during the making of questioners by news organizations. Following these result, we do not have to undervalue public opinion polls. They have important roles as to 'measure' the public opinions and to keep polishing fair examinations.
著者
貫名 貴洋
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, pp.105-122, 2017-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
18

In newspaper articles and the publishing industry, there is an opinion that a decrease in the sale of books affects an increase in the lending of books in public libraries. However, there are few proof cases of the correlation and causality between these variables. We sought to empirically study whether the two variables truly demonstrate correlation or causality. We used data from 1970 to 2015. The regression coefficient for the two variables of level data showed very high significance. However, this was a case of“ spurious regression.” The“ spurious regression” theory was proved by Granger and Newbold( 1974). We then performed regression analysis using stationary time series data, and the data after removing the time trend. We conducted a unit root test to derive the stationary time series data. Additionally, we used the Hodrick-Prescott filter to remove the time trend. Analysis of these data did not return a significant regression coefficient. We conclude that the lending of books at the public library has no effect on the sales of books.
著者
永田 大輔
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.88, pp.137-155, 2016-01-31

This paper discusses the Video Tape Recorder (VTR) spread process in the 1960s and 1970s. Previous studies on videos have mainly focused on two aspects: (1) sexual media and (2) leisure communities' unique consumption. This paper examines how functions such as slow motion, which were usually used by the leisure communities only were prepared in the first process of family spread. This paper researches the industry paper Video Journal in the period 1968-1978. This industrial magazine has a different focus than that of leisure magazines. This magazine discusses multiple markets in the spread process. This paper will examine each market's demands, according to the industry magazine. From the 1960s to the 1970s the video market was supported by an educational demand. Video was a revolutionary media in audio-visual education. Education has diverse functional needs and feedback regarding these needs can reach the market through study groups. These unique functional demands of leisure groups later spread to family use. In the mid -1970s, Video Journal was conscious of the family market, but its development in this market had been late. First, this may be due to a lack of good content on video. But the true reason is the cost of video recording. Thus, the market could not identify families' needs for a long time, and could not predict the time of family spread. Furthermore, educational needs continued and their demand is left. Both family and educational needs continued and their demand is left. Both family and educational needs did not utilize video functions such as slow motion, which were only used by leisure groups.
著者
倉橋 耕平
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.153-171, 2009-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
19

Our concern i s to examine i ssues relating to the falsification of the NHK televisionprogram“ ETV 2001” broadcasted on Jan. 30, 2001. But here we limit ourdiscussion to the matter of press freedom. The judgment each pronounced bythe Supreme Court and the Tokyo High Court i llustrate the point. The formertook account of“ the freedom of expression” i ndemnified by the Constitution ofJapan, the latter condemned an i llegality of NHK for dereliction of i ts duty as acorporate body. It i s clear that there are substantial discrepancies betweenthem i n the concept of freedom.
著者
大久保 遼
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.209-230, 2011-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
30

This article analyzes the page layouts of photography magazines during the Russo-Japanese War, and it thus reveals the emergence of the "photographic construction of vision" in photography magazines, or the mutual referencing and montage between the photographs and the text on the same page. The page layouts of photography magazines are visually constructed not only by the photographs themselves but also by the relationship between the photographs and the text such as articles or captions. Such "photographic construction of vision" in these magazines is a historic phenomenon. Through an examination of the Records of the Russo-Japanese War (Nichiro senso jikki) and its special issue Photographic Pictorial of Russo-Japanese War (Nichiro senso shashin gaho), a study of the photography correspondents dispatched by these magazines, and a comparative analysis of the page layouts and the moving pictures of that time, this article reveals that the concept of photographic construction emerged in photography magazines around 1900. This finding can be confirmed by the following observations: (1) the editor's reflective consideration of photo editing, (2) mutual referencing between the photographs and the text, and (3) the photographic style of the montages used in the magazine. Finally, this article concludes that such photographic construction became more complicated and established in later periods, and that it came to be a precursor of the modernist movement in the 1930s and the war propaganda by means of photographs in the 1940s. Moreover, it caused distraction and lead to readers cursorily examining the relationship between the text and photographs without deconstructing this relationship.
著者
柳原 伸洋
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.88, pp.35-53, 2016-01-31

This study examines and compares the films, dramas, and comics that describe air-raids mainly in Japan and Germany. We first consider the definitions and the uses of the words "Kusyu" and "Kubaku," that is, "air-raid." Next, we examine the post-war history of Japan and Germany and the "popularity" of bombardment as a basis of comparison. Thereafter, we characterize the differences and similarities between these countries through examples of Japanese and German works of popular culture. We conclude by presenting memorable descriptions of bombing, such as love during the bombing and the feelings of revenge. However, the bodies and faces of bomber pilots have been re-eliminated from the popular culture of Japan and Germany.
著者
小川 有希子
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.54, pp.96-112, 249, 1999-01-31

The purpose of this study was to propose a method of 'qualitative' content anlysis, and to examine its methodological usefulness by relating its results to the viewers' reactions. A televised drama, in which a committed teacher dealt with the problem of bullying the classroom was analyzed, and viewers' reactions to the drama were collected by a questionnaire and summarized. The content analysis was done in the following manner: First, the development of the drama was analyzed and then segmented into units. Second, the units were categorized into three negative stages and two positive stages in terms of the characters' mental state. It was found that this method of content analysis was quite informative for identifying the segments of the problem that probably induced each reaction of the viewers.
著者
山本 昭宏
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.79, pp.153-170, 2011-07-31

This paper analyzes articles about nuclear energy in three science magazines, Kagaku Asahi (Asahi Science), Shizen (Nature), and Kagaku (Science), which were published in Japan in the 1950s. The analytical methodology used in the study is a combination of quantitative analysis and theory concerned with the agenda-setting function of the media. The study aims to reveal the relationship between the discourse found in the articles and Japanese opinions concerning nuclear energy development and radioactive substances, and to explore the qualitative changes in the discourse of the articles and the reasons underlying such changes. One conclusion that emerges from the quantitative analysis is that the number of discourses concerning nuclear energy increased between 1954 and 1955, and following this started to steadily decrease. Generally speaking, the Lucky Dragon 5 incident in 1954, in which the crew of a Japanese fishing vessel was exposed to nuclear fallout from US nuclear testing on Bikini Atoll, is considered to have started the anti-nuclear movement in Japan. At this time, in the science magazines, there was an increase in specialist discourses concerning topics such as nuclear reactors and methods of measuring nuclear fallout. In reality, almost all the scientists involved in nuclear energy research and development thought that they had no connection to the anti-nuclear movement. Based on a purely dualistic conception of good and bad, they continued to position nuclear energy as something to be used for good. From this perspective, it can be seen that in the Japanese science magazines of the 1950s, the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and its effects were understood only in a very limited sense.
著者
佐藤 潤司
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.85, pp.185-204, 2014-07-31

In this paper, I will specifically and objectively identify critical opinions on the mass media that have developed on the Internet about a report giving the real names of the Japanese victims of the hostage crisis of January 2013 in Algeria, and consider the structural factors of such criticism. The targets of this analysis are 1262 cases of opinions output from highly-ranked Web pages displayed on a search engine listing using fixed criteria. 7.1% of the opinions supported the news report, 68.5% of opinions did not support it, with other opinions accounting for 24.4%. The results of an analysis of opinions that did not support the report by using a text-mining approach did not necessarily indicate criticisms of the report that used the real names of the victims, but were an accumulation of various feelings of distrust against the mass media expressed on the Internet that were triggered by this news report. In addition, opinions that did not support the report were formed using language structures peculiar to the Internet; namely, a cyber-cascade that began at the point where people critical of the mass media became sympathetic and radicalized as unclear information spread on the Internet.
著者
中田 崇
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, pp.61-77, 2008-07-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
43

The purpose of this Article is to analyze the above subject by the KMT's archives and Propagandist's autobiography. After the "Anti-Japan Sensation by Shanghai Baby", the International Publicity Department used photographs as the propaganda media to the U.S. The International Publicity Department, at first, selected pictures among the ones gathered and, sent to the U.S. media through the foreign agents. Later, they made original photographs and distributed to the U.S media in the name of photo agency. These pictures were recognized as the witness of history.