- 季刊経済理論 (ISSN:18825184)
- vol.43, no.1, pp.26-35, 2006-04-20 (Released:2017-04-25)
This paper considers different concepts of equality and inequality in neo-liberalism and welfare states. The equality in neo-liberalism or libertarianism is based on the two principles, that is, the principle of "distribution in proportion to desert," and that of "burden in proportion to benefit." We call them "the market principles" in this paper. On the other hand, the equality in welfare states is based on the different two principles, the principle of "distribution in proportion to needs," and that of "burden in proportion to ability." We call them "the community principle." Karl Marx distinguished the works principle (a kind of the principle of distribution in proportion to desert) and the needs principle in his Critique of the Gotha Programme. He expected that the works principle would prevail in the first stage of a communist society and the needs principle would do in the second and highly developed one. Amarthya Sen pointed that the needs principle had been involved in the social security and other social services in welfare states. This paper argues that the community principles, including the needs principle and the principle of burden in proportion to ability, are more or less prevailing not only in welfare states but also in various communities such as families, local communities, companies, religious organizations, nation states, and international organizations.