- 季刊経済理論 (ISSN:18825184)
- vol.47, no.4, pp.30-41, 2011-01-20 (Released:2017-04-25)
It has been often pointed out that Kalecki's political economy was based on that of Marx. For example, T. Kowalik and J. Robinson referred to the Marxian roots of Kalecki's political economy. They emphasized that Kalecki's theory of effective demand was based on Marx's scheme of reproduction, and, at the same time, gave a solution to 'the problem of the realization of surpuls value' in the third volume of Capital. However, only a few studies have been done to explore the relationship between Kalecki's theory of effective demand and Marx's scheme of reproduction. First of all, in this paper, we survey Kalecki's referrance to Marx's scheme of reproduction and Kalecki's own scheme. Kalckie often refered to Marx's scheme of reproduction, and, at the same time, modified the Marx's scheme: he formulated his own scheme ("tableau economicue of the nationl income"). In his scheme, Kalecki divided the economy into two sectors (the investment goods sector and the consumption goods sector) or three sectors (the consumption goods were subdivided into for workers and for capitalists), and he assumed that each department represents "the integrated production" of the final products. Moreover, Kalecki asssumed, "as Marx does", that workers do not save. Then, he arrived at "the fudamental Marxian 'equation of exchange'" (C_1=S_2 or P_3=W_1+W_2). The "fudamental Marxian 'equation of exchange'" is just the equation of the balancing condition in Marx's scheme of expanded reproduction. From this "fudamental Marxian 'equation of exchange'," Kalecki derived the proposition that investment and capitalst consumption determin profits. Second, we compare Kalecki's theory of capitalist economy with that of Marx in Capital, especialy in the third volume of Capital, in order to clarify the theoretical relationship of them. Kalecki succeeded to the Marxian concept of class, the capital-labour relation. For Kalecki, capitalists are owners of money and the means of production, and workers do not save. But he rejected the Marxian theory of value and the theory of surplus-value. He never dealt with such Marxian concepts of labour value, surplus value and price of production. On the other hand, he emphasized the oligopolitic nature of the capitalist economy and the realization of profits in the process of circulation i. e. in the product market. Coseqently, he could derive the proposition that investment and capitalst consumption determin profits, and, at the same time, give a solution to 'the problem of the realization of surpuls value'. However, on the other hand, he neglected the reduction in cost and the formation of the relative surplus population (industrial reserve army) by the technical change in the process of production. It is necessary and possibie to integrate Kalecki's theory of effective demand in his scheme ("tableau economicue of the nationl income") with marx's theory of surpuls value. From this point of view, we need to integrate Kalecki's political economy with that of Marx.