- アフリカ研究 (ISSN:00654140)
- vol.28, pp.48-69, 1986
Republic of Kenya achieved independence from England in 1963. But it is well known that the process of her independence was not so easy. There were so many conflicts against British colonial rule in Kenya. Mau Mau revolt was the largest and most intensive uprising in Kenya independent movement. Several reasons of this uprising already have been said by writers, historians, politicians and Mau Mau survivers. But even now no fixed theory to interpret Mau Mau revolt is appeared. It is obvious that Mau Mau revolt was the fight for Kikuyu land and freedom of Kikuyu people by Kikuyu people. The problem is that Mau Mau revolt included the phase of independent movement of nationalist, or not. Because most people who took part in this uprising were almost Kikuyu people, above all young Kikuyu people who had no land to cultivate. In this respect Mau Mau revolt was regarded as civil war between "haves" and "have-nots" in Kikuyu land.<br>Kikuyu Central Association in 1920s and Kenya African Union in 1940s were leading organization of political movement in Kenya. These organizations were led by more or less "haves" who were educated in the school of the Christian Missionaries. They were not always against British colonial rule and their purpose was wealth and political power in colonial system. Their movements were improvement of life to accept European life style and European civilization. Mau Mau revolt was different from these movement. Because most of people who took part in Mau Mau uprising were young and had not education of Christian Missionaries. In this point Mau Mau revolt was anti-European Christian civilization movement to keep identity of African.<br>In the beginning of 1900s Christian Missionaries came to Kikuyu land. They established Christian Missionaries schools. In 1910s they want to suspend the custom of girl's circumcision in Kikuyu land. Some of the Christian Missionaries decided to compel Kikuyu people give up the custom of girl's circumcision in 1920s. But Kikuyu people repulsed these policies of Christian Missionaries. As a matter of course, anti-Christian Missionaries movement was increased in violence in Kikuyu land. Kikuyu people denied to educate their children in schools of Christian Missionaries. They established their own schools and churches, which were Kikuyu Independent School to educate their children and Kikuyu Karinga School to educate Kikuyu traditional religion apart from Christian Missionaries.<br>The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries in Kikuyu land had given influence on the independent political movement, especially later Mau Mau movement. In fact there are several reasons of Mau Mau revolt under British rule, which is labour policy, land policy and so on. The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries was also one of the most important impact on Kikuyu Nationalism Movement.