著者
楠本 成寿 福田 洋一 竹村 恵二 竹本 修三
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
地學雜誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.110, no.1, pp.32-43, 2001
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1 6

In order to solve a mechanical inconsistency that the Osaka Bay basin exists between the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and Arima-Takatsuki Tectonic Line (ATTL) (right-lateral left-stepping faults), we attempted to investigate and evaluate the basin forming mechanism at the termination of right-lateral left-stepping faults by means of the dislocation modeling.<BR>The results of the numerical simulations show that the sedimentary basin can be formed at the termination of the right-lateral left-stepping faults develop, if the secondary fault caused by the rightlateral motion is a reverse fault and its displacement is larger than 20% of the lateral motion. We applied this model to the fault distribution in the Kinki district, and found that tectonic structures around the Osaka Bay can be explained by combination of 1) the right-lateral motion of the MTL and ATTL and 2) the reverse motion of their secondary faults, <I>i.e</I>., Nara-Toh'en Fault, Ikoma Fault and Rokko-Awaji Fault Systems.
著者
堀 裕
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
史林 (ISSN:03869369)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.1, pp.38-69,131, 1998
被引用文献数
1
著者
中田 考
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.16-31, 1992

In the classical Islamic jurisprudence the <i>Jihad</i> is defined as 'to expend one's life, wealth, and words in the war or the defence against infidels'. But after the collapse of the Ottoman Caliphate, the political situations of the Islamic world drastically changed, which called various responses among Muslim intellectuals. Faraj, the ideologue of the Egyptian '<i>Jihad</i>' group demonstrates that contemporary rulers apostatize from Islam because they do not rule according to the <i>shari'a</i>. So it turns to be individual obligation for Muslims to go <i>jihad</i> against the apostate rulers, for the <i>jihad</i> against apostates is to precede that against native infidels and the near enemy is more dangerous than the distant. But the <i>jihad</i> against the rulers has now no hope to succeed, so Shaikh 'Abdulgadir, a member of the '<i>Jihad</i>', argues that the military training for the <i>jihad</i> is incumbent on every sane adult Muslim who has the necessary equipments and that Muslims should elect a qualified commander by lack of the caliph.<br>Dr. 'Umar 'Abdurrahman, the mentor of the '<i>Jama'a Isldmiya</i>', who classifies the rulers of the Muslim states into six categories, distinguishes the contemporary ruler from the traditional types of rulers and coins the word <i>mustabdil</i> for that. He concludes that the <i>mustabdil</i> is infidel and consequently has no legitimacy to rule and that Muslims must rise against him. Abu Ithar, Dr. 'Umar's disciple refines the conception of <i>mustabdil</i> and proves that the war against a <i>mustabdil</i> is not the rebellion which is one of the <i>hudud</i> crimes, but Muslim's duty.<br>Thus the fight against evil rulers is justified both in the framework of the <i>jihad</i> theory by Faraj and 'Abdulgadir, and in the discussion about the legitimacy of the caliph by Dr.' Umar and Abu Ithar.<br>The 'revolutionary <i>jihad</i> theories' radically differ from the classical theory of the <i>jihad</i> and the caliphate. In the classical Islamic jurisprudence the <i>jihad</i> is defined as the war against infidels and strictly separated from the notion of apostasy which is one of the <i>hudud</i> crimes. The caliphate theory is inserted in the chapter of the rebellion in the Islamic jurisprudence, so that it serves mainly for the justification of the temporal ruler and excludes the possibility of discussing the caliph's apostasy.
著者
高橋 直
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
心理學研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.94-101, 1996
被引用文献数
1

This study examined the effect of trash-receptacle availability on littering behavior in a naturalistic setting, namely a shopping mall. The procedure employed was an ABAB design, with (A) a baseline period, (B) an intervention period, (A) a second baseline period, and (B) a second intervention period. During the intervention periods, receptacles for empty cans and bottles were placed next to every trash receptacle that had been in place. The arrangement had a highly significant effect on littering behavior. For the first intervention period, a 22% reduction in litter was obtained, and it was reduced 34% for the second period. It seems that receptacles themselves were a powerful cue to induce people to deposit their litter. Conditions for findings of applied behavior analysis to generalize to more realistic every-day situations were also discussed.
著者
福田 珠己
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
地理学評論. Ser. A (ISSN:00167444)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.9, pp.727-743, 1996
被引用文献数
14

本稿では,沖縄県竹富島において島を代表する存在である「赤瓦の町並み」が,どのように保存され今のような姿に至ったか,また,「赤瓦の町並み」が町並み保存運動の中で,伝統的建造物群保存地区という文化財としてどのように再生されていったか,伝統文化の創造という観点から考察する.町並み保存のプロセスを検討していくことによって,「伝統的」であると見なされている町並みが本来はいかなるものであるのか,さらに,「伝統的」であるとはいかなることなのかが,明らかになるのである.<br> 本研究の視点は,文化と真正性,伝統文化の創造,観光と伝統をめぐる諸研究と共通するものであり,本研究で取り上げた文化財として位置づけられている伝統的町並みは,研究者・行政・住民の三者の思惑が絡み合ったところに生じたもので,近年注目されっっある「ふるさと」の文化,地域の伝統文化を考える上で,格好の素材でもある.
著者
杉浦 郁子
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.73-90,222, 2002

Since Saitama Medical University applied to carry out a sex reassignment surgery (so called "sex change surgery") in 1995, medicalization of "gender identity disorder" is actively encouraged in Japan. There has been a corresponding increase in number of treatises on this mental disorder published by specialists. By analyzing those professional discourses, I will illustrate how a domain of "the sexual" is socially constructed.<br> The social constructionism has argued two important views: First, objects are produced in and through a series of linguistic practices of signification; second, some knowledge is cited/referred when the practices are intelligible. The question of how "the sexual" is constructed will not be limited to the work of showing the particular way of construction of "the sexual." I will also show how and what kind of knowledge is cited in the constructing process.<br> Having learned constructionism from Judith Butler, this paper keeps the interest of describing gaps and fissures that are produced in the very process of the constructing practices. Those gaps and fissures are observed as logical discontinuity, and are taken as the possibility to change the hegemonic meaning of "the sexual."<br> I hold the attention of its changeablity because I am anxious that the construct of "the sexual" by professionals becomes standard and legitimate knowledge. Examining carefully the practices, we will find cited knowledge there operates against not only other "sexual minorities" but also transsexuals themselves.
著者
土井 茂則
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
アフリカ研究 (ISSN:00654140)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.48-69, 1986

Republic of Kenya achieved independence from England in 1963. But it is well known that the process of her independence was not so easy. There were so many conflicts against British colonial rule in Kenya. Mau Mau revolt was the largest and most intensive uprising in Kenya independent movement. Several reasons of this uprising already have been said by writers, historians, politicians and Mau Mau survivers. But even now no fixed theory to interpret Mau Mau revolt is appeared. It is obvious that Mau Mau revolt was the fight for Kikuyu land and freedom of Kikuyu people by Kikuyu people. The problem is that Mau Mau revolt included the phase of independent movement of nationalist, or not. Because most people who took part in this uprising were almost Kikuyu people, above all young Kikuyu people who had no land to cultivate. In this respect Mau Mau revolt was regarded as civil war between "haves" and "have-nots" in Kikuyu land.<br>Kikuyu Central Association in 1920s and Kenya African Union in 1940s were leading organization of political movement in Kenya. These organizations were led by more or less "haves" who were educated in the school of the Christian Missionaries. They were not always against British colonial rule and their purpose was wealth and political power in colonial system. Their movements were improvement of life to accept European life style and European civilization. Mau Mau revolt was different from these movement. Because most of people who took part in Mau Mau uprising were young and had not education of Christian Missionaries. In this point Mau Mau revolt was anti-European Christian civilization movement to keep identity of African.<br>In the beginning of 1900s Christian Missionaries came to Kikuyu land. They established Christian Missionaries schools. In 1910s they want to suspend the custom of girl's circumcision in Kikuyu land. Some of the Christian Missionaries decided to compel Kikuyu people give up the custom of girl's circumcision in 1920s. But Kikuyu people repulsed these policies of Christian Missionaries. As a matter of course, anti-Christian Missionaries movement was increased in violence in Kikuyu land. Kikuyu people denied to educate their children in schools of Christian Missionaries. They established their own schools and churches, which were Kikuyu Independent School to educate their children and Kikuyu Karinga School to educate Kikuyu traditional religion apart from Christian Missionaries.<br>The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries in Kikuyu land had given influence on the independent political movement, especially later Mau Mau movement. In fact there are several reasons of Mau Mau revolt under British rule, which is labour policy, land policy and so on. The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries was also one of the most important impact on Kikuyu Nationalism Movement.
著者
小川 順子
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
日本研究 : 国際日本文化研究センター紀要 (ISSN:09150900)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.37-54,v, 2002

本論は、チャンバラ時代劇映画における「殺陣」に焦点を当てて、殺陣のもつ歴史的な展開を新たに構成し、「殺陣史」の類型化を試みたものである。 チャンバラ時代劇映画における「殺陣」は映画がもつ宿命と同じものである。すなわち、ある程度ドミナントになったパターンが続くと、観客は新たなるものを欲望するようになり、そのようにして新たな欲望に応えるように映画は展開してきた。「殺陣」も同様に、歌舞伎の引き写しから様々な要素が加えられ、新たなる刺激を求める観客に応えようとしてきたはずである。しかし残念ながら、「殺陣」そのものを映画作品から独立させ、歴史的なパースペクティブからダイナミックな展開を構成していくというアプローチは見られない。多くは作品論や映画史、または役者の身体論という形において語られてきているのみである。 本論では、これまで流布してきた「殺陣」に関する言説を抽出し、歴史的な時間の流れにそって便宜上、時代配列した上で、映画史が繰り返し語る「黒澤時代劇」を一つの軸として、「殺陣の歴史的展開」のモデル化を試みたい。 歴史的なパースペクティブで「殺陣」を捉えなおしたとき、これまでの「殺陣」を構成してきたいくつかの要素が抽出可能であると考える。そして「殺陣」のもつダイナミックな展開は、これらの要素の導入や組み合わせ、並べ替えや特定の要素の強調、あるいは特定の要素の欠如によって、いくつかの類型に分類できると考える。そこで便宜上、四つの要素を抽出してみた。(1)映像効果的要素(映像技術の発展を指すので、歴史的にずっと変化し導入され続けている要素)。(2)コレオグラフィー的要素(歌舞伎的な舞踊からジャズ・ダンス的な要素まで全て含む「踊る」身体技法。これが当てはまる年代は、映画の草創期から「時代劇映画第二黄金期」と言われる一九六〇年代までを大きく含む。なぜなら、これは歌舞伎関係や舞台出身であるスターたちの身体と切り離せない要素だからである)。(3)スプラッター的要素(手足や首が飛んだり血が噴出するといった演出、いわば人間の身体を「モノ」化した映像表現)。(4)武術的要素(実際の武術の型を取り入れ、また武術家の名前をクレジットに出すことによって、武術的な関心を観客にアピールしたもの)。そしてこのスプラッター的要素と武術的要素は、映画史が繰り返して語る「黒澤時代劇」によってもたらされたものと考えられている。黒澤の『用心棒』『椿三十郎』、でこれらの要素が「殺陣」にもたらした革新は今更強調することもないであろう。 しかし、黒澤が与えた革新後、コレオグラフィー的要素は意識的に回避・否定されるようになり、そののちの「殺陣」は「黒澤時代劇」を一つの定型として仰いで反復を繰り返し、本質的に何ら新しい要素が加えられていないと考えられる。このような否定的状況の中で「殺陣」の未来は、失われたコレオグラフィックな身体技法を身につけたスターの出現か、新たなる要素の導入の他に可能性はないのではないかと考えられる。