著者
中田 考
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.16-31, 1992

In the classical Islamic jurisprudence the <i>Jihad</i> is defined as 'to expend one's life, wealth, and words in the war or the defence against infidels'. But after the collapse of the Ottoman Caliphate, the political situations of the Islamic world drastically changed, which called various responses among Muslim intellectuals. Faraj, the ideologue of the Egyptian '<i>Jihad</i>' group demonstrates that contemporary rulers apostatize from Islam because they do not rule according to the <i>shari'a</i>. So it turns to be individual obligation for Muslims to go <i>jihad</i> against the apostate rulers, for the <i>jihad</i> against apostates is to precede that against native infidels and the near enemy is more dangerous than the distant. But the <i>jihad</i> against the rulers has now no hope to succeed, so Shaikh 'Abdulgadir, a member of the '<i>Jihad</i>', argues that the military training for the <i>jihad</i> is incumbent on every sane adult Muslim who has the necessary equipments and that Muslims should elect a qualified commander by lack of the caliph.<br>Dr. 'Umar 'Abdurrahman, the mentor of the '<i>Jama'a Isldmiya</i>', who classifies the rulers of the Muslim states into six categories, distinguishes the contemporary ruler from the traditional types of rulers and coins the word <i>mustabdil</i> for that. He concludes that the <i>mustabdil</i> is infidel and consequently has no legitimacy to rule and that Muslims must rise against him. Abu Ithar, Dr. 'Umar's disciple refines the conception of <i>mustabdil</i> and proves that the war against a <i>mustabdil</i> is not the rebellion which is one of the <i>hudud</i> crimes, but Muslim's duty.<br>Thus the fight against evil rulers is justified both in the framework of the <i>jihad</i> theory by Faraj and 'Abdulgadir, and in the discussion about the legitimacy of the caliph by Dr.' Umar and Abu Ithar.<br>The 'revolutionary <i>jihad</i> theories' radically differ from the classical theory of the <i>jihad</i> and the caliphate. In the classical Islamic jurisprudence the <i>jihad</i> is defined as the war against infidels and strictly separated from the notion of apostasy which is one of the <i>hudud</i> crimes. The caliphate theory is inserted in the chapter of the rebellion in the Islamic jurisprudence, so that it serves mainly for the justification of the temporal ruler and excludes the possibility of discussing the caliph's apostasy.
著者
堀 裕
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
史林 (ISSN:03869369)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.1, pp.38-69,131, 1998
被引用文献数
0 or 1
著者
西村 智昭
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
アフリカ研究 (ISSN:00654140)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.29-46, 1994
被引用文献数
5 or 0

The population density of western lowland gorillas in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, northern Congo, was estimated both by the "bed-census" method and the "counting" method based on bed-count and direct observation. The density was calculated as 1.92-2.56animals/km<sup>2</sup> and 2.29-2.61 animals/km<sup>2</sup> respectively. Because this was the first time to attempt the "bed-census" method in the Ndoki forest, direct comparison of population density was possible between western lowland gorilla populations at all study sites. It was concluded that the density of the Ndoki gorillas was highest. High population density of the Ndoki gorillas was considered to be possible because they have access to a wide repertoire of foods such as highly nutritious terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) and various kinds of fruits and seeds, corresponding to the seasonal fluctuation of food availability. Although the feeding habits and habitat were different between western and eastern gorillas, they shared a basically one-male group composition, large group size, and unit groups that largely shared their home ranges with each other.
著者
土井 茂則
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
アフリカ研究 (ISSN:00654140)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.48-69, 1986

Republic of Kenya achieved independence from England in 1963. But it is well known that the process of her independence was not so easy. There were so many conflicts against British colonial rule in Kenya. Mau Mau revolt was the largest and most intensive uprising in Kenya independent movement. Several reasons of this uprising already have been said by writers, historians, politicians and Mau Mau survivers. But even now no fixed theory to interpret Mau Mau revolt is appeared. It is obvious that Mau Mau revolt was the fight for Kikuyu land and freedom of Kikuyu people by Kikuyu people. The problem is that Mau Mau revolt included the phase of independent movement of nationalist, or not. Because most people who took part in this uprising were almost Kikuyu people, above all young Kikuyu people who had no land to cultivate. In this respect Mau Mau revolt was regarded as civil war between "haves" and "have-nots" in Kikuyu land.<br>Kikuyu Central Association in 1920s and Kenya African Union in 1940s were leading organization of political movement in Kenya. These organizations were led by more or less "haves" who were educated in the school of the Christian Missionaries. They were not always against British colonial rule and their purpose was wealth and political power in colonial system. Their movements were improvement of life to accept European life style and European civilization. Mau Mau revolt was different from these movement. Because most of people who took part in Mau Mau uprising were young and had not education of Christian Missionaries. In this point Mau Mau revolt was anti-European Christian civilization movement to keep identity of African.<br>In the beginning of 1900s Christian Missionaries came to Kikuyu land. They established Christian Missionaries schools. In 1910s they want to suspend the custom of girl's circumcision in Kikuyu land. Some of the Christian Missionaries decided to compel Kikuyu people give up the custom of girl's circumcision in 1920s. But Kikuyu people repulsed these policies of Christian Missionaries. As a matter of course, anti-Christian Missionaries movement was increased in violence in Kikuyu land. Kikuyu people denied to educate their children in schools of Christian Missionaries. They established their own schools and churches, which were Kikuyu Independent School to educate their children and Kikuyu Karinga School to educate Kikuyu traditional religion apart from Christian Missionaries.<br>The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries in Kikuyu land had given influence on the independent political movement, especially later Mau Mau movement. In fact there are several reasons of Mau Mau revolt under British rule, which is labour policy, land policy and so on. The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries was also one of the most important impact on Kikuyu Nationalism Movement.