- 研究紀要 (ISSN:09178333)
- vol.32, pp.1-17, 2001-03
Materisls used for this experiment were two Nelumbo nucifera fruits, preserved for 800 years, which had been layered in the coffin of a mummified head of the Foruth Fujiwara reign. The plants were observed from seeding to flowering. Also observed were the morphology of the fruit, flower, leaf, and pollen grain of the lotus. The causes of longevity in lotus fruit and Tyuusonji-lotus fruit were investigated. 1. Development from seeding to flowring. a. On the seeding of the two lotus fruits were used, one weighing 720 milligrams, and the other weighing 860 milligrams. The seeding was started on May 20,1993. They were cut at the base of the fruit, and then water was poured into the glass. Germination of the fruit weighing 860 milligrams started four days after beginning the seeding ; but the fruit weighing 720 milligrams withered and died. The first leaf emerged six days after seeding, and small roots appeared. 21 days after seeding, the first and second leaves had opened, and the third and fourth leaves had emerged. When the first through the fifth leaves were opened, the lotus plantlet was transplanted, using upland soil in a small round pot, 96 days after seeding, the lotus plantlet was transplanted, using a mixture of a little Maguanp K fertilizer in upland soil. It was cultured a round pot placed in a field. After that, seven leaves opened, but it had no standing leaf. b. The first year seeding, 1994,the plant formed three rhizomes, which were transplanted into a round pot and rectangular plastic contianer : The upland soil was fertilized with a mix of 100 grams of Maguanp K 500 grams of manure per square meter. The lotus plants grew and developed well, but did not exhibit flowering. c. The second year after seeding, 1995,the plant formed eight rhizomes. These rhizomes were transplanted into three rectangular plastic containers, with the upland soil fertilized with a mix of 100 grams Maguanp K, 100 grams of compound fertilizer, and a little bone manure per sequare meter. The lotus plants grew and development well, but did not flowering. d. The third years after seeding, 1996,the plant formed twelve rhizomes. The fertilizer used in this year the same as that used in the previus years. The containers used were round pots and rectangular plastic containers. The lotus plants grew and developed well, but did not flowering. e. The fouth years after seeding, 1997,the plant formed sixteen rhizomes. The culture contianer, fertilizer, and culture methods of this year were the same as those used in the previous year. The lotus plants did not exhibit flowering this year either. One reason for this was that the culture containers placed in the field received in-sufficient hours of sunshine. f. The fifth years after seeding, 1998,the plant formed twenty rhizomes. The culture contianer, and fertilizer and culture methods were the same as in the previous year. The lotus plant had its first flowering during this year. The first flower bloomed on July 29,1998. The flower was 23 centimeters in diameter, and was a beautiful bright pink. Five days later, blooming finished, early in the morning of August 2nd. The flower resembled a ""Waren"" the Japanese wild lotus of midium sized, with bright pink and slender petals. 2. The morphology of lotus included the formation of a stylar end, the protuberance, a cap-shaped portion, and the fruit body and dent portion. In its longitudinal section were found the formation stylar end, pericarp, seed coat, cotyledon, plumula, cavity and dent portion. The pericarp was very hard in sclerenchymatous cells of the palisade layer, and under it was a sclerenchymatous layer in a dense arrangement. There was a hyaline zone near the center of the palisade layer, and under the stoma was a stomatal canal. The hardness of the pericarp in the lotus fruit was a development of mechanical tissue for the palisade layer and sclerenchymatous cell. 3. The lotus flower was a formation of calyx, receptacle, petal, stamen, and pistil.