著者
伊藤 毅志 松原 仁 ライエルグリンベルゲン
出版者
一般社団法人情報処理学会
雑誌
情報処理学会論文誌 (ISSN:18827764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.10, pp.2998-3011, 2002-10-15
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
14 or 0

人間の問題解決の認知過程については数多くの研究が行われてきた.ゲームおよびゲーム理論は昔から人間の問題解決行動の研究において重要な役割を演じてきた.認知研究の題材にゲームを用いることの利点は,ゲームが良定義問題で対戦による評価が容易なことである.チェスで最もよく知られた認知実験は局面の記憶に関するものでDe Grootによって行われた.この研究を継いだSimonとChaseはチャンクという概念を用いてエキスパートの認知能力を説明した.チャンクは一種の情報のかたまりで,チェスでいうとチェス盤上の典型的な駒の配置パターンのかたまりをチャンクと呼んでいる.彼らは強いプレイヤは弱いプレイヤよりも広い配置パターンをチャンクとして記憶していることを示した.将棋の認知研究の第1歩として,我々はまずチェスで行われた認知実験を追試してみることにした.チェスと将棋には認識の点からいくつかの違いがあるので,この追試実験を一度は実施することが必要だと考えた.本論文では将棋を対象とした時間無制限と時間制限の記憶実験を行った.強いプレイヤが弱いプレイヤより成績が良いこと,すなわち広い配置パターンをチャンクとして記憶しているというチェスとほぼ同様の結果が得られた.In the past, there have been numerous studies into the cognitive processes involved in human problem solving. From the start, games and game theory have played an important role in the study of human problem solving behavior. The advantage of using games for the study of cognitive behavior is that games provide a complex but well-defined problem in which evaluation of results is relatively easy. In chess, one of the most well-known cognitive experiments was the study by De Groot on memorizing positions. As a follow-up to De Groot's work, Chase and Simon introduced the theory of chunking to explain why expert game players perform so well on memory tasks. Chunking is the process of dividing a chess position into smaller parts that have meaning. Chase and Simon showed that stronger players have bigger chunks of chess knowledge than weaker players. As a first step in our cognitive study of Shogi, we repeated some experiments that were conducted in chess. We felt that repeating these experiments was necessary as there are some important differences between chess and Shogi from perceptual point of view (for example, shogi has a 9×9 board with all squares having the same color, shogi pieces are two-dimensional and in shogi captured pieces remain part of the game). Because of these differences, it could not be assumed that the results for chess would carry over to shogi. In this paper we give the experimental results of memory tasks in shogi, both with and without a time limit. Our results were similar to the ones obtained in chess. As in chess, there is a correlation between playing strength and the performance on the memory tasks. From this we can draw a similar conclusion for shogi as for chess: stronger players have bigger chunks of shogi knowledge than weaker players.

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