- 西洋古典論集 (ISSN:02897113)
- vol.15, pp.1-23, 1998-08-10
この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。One of the most controversial problems about the Hymn to Apollo concerns the composition and unity of the hymn. Since David Ruhnken (1794), most scholars have divided the hymn into a 'Delian' and a 'Pythian' part. I recognise, however, some kind of unity between the two sections, while admitting the separate authorship. The digression of the Typhon episode (305-355) has also often been regarded as an interpolation. However, I think that there is in the arrangement of the motifs a design which contributes to the effectiveness and persuasiveness of the digression. It is the aim of this essay, therefore, to look at the details of this digression, and to see if there is some detectable logic in its connection with a narrative as a whole. The episode of the dragon functions as the framework of the digression of Typhon. In the parallel of the dragon and Typhon, only the birth of Typhon and the death of the dragon are narrated. The reasons advantageous to the composer for this complicated arrangement are to stress (1)the unrivalled nature of Apollo's first oracular installation ; (2)the aetiological design in the name of the dragon ; (3)the gender of the dragon ; (4)emphasis on the role of Hera. Being female, the dragon is able to become nurse to Typhon, and this is crucial if we think of the succession myth. Since Gaia has ceased to challenge Zeus after he has established his power in Olympus (according to the Theogony), now in the hymn, Hera may attempt to destroy Zeus' order by initiating a cycle of succession catalysed by his son's rebellion ; Typhon is the figure who could have overthrown Zeus, helped by the dragon, just as Zeus overthrew Kronos, aided by his nurse, Gaia. The dragon (the nurse), by helping Typhon, might have played the decisive role in the usurpation of Zeus, if Apollo had not killed her. The killing of the dragon is, therefore, not merely evidence of Apollo's aristeia, but contributes a much graver meaning : Apollo intervenes in the succession myth, alleviating the crisis of Zeus. Hera might have accomplished her desire if Apollo had not come to help Zeus-this seems to be the implication of the hymn. It is startling to begin the hymn with a scene of potential threat. This may imply that Apollo has just returned from the battle with Typhon, and is demonstrating his authority among the gods. Although Apollo could be another threat to overthrow Zeus, his father, Leto assists Zeus, acting as a king-maker by influencing Apollo. The opening scene depicts the celebration both of Apollo's victory over Typhon and an overall peace between Zeus and Apollo. The opening scene and the digression of the Typhon episode are thus inter-related, and illustrative of the wider struggle for cosmic power. One of the main purposes in selecting the dragon-Typhon story is to sing about Hera By means of Hera's entrance into the narrative, the encomiastic aim of this hymn is fully achieved. Apollo degrades Hera by destroying the dragon and the end result is the gain of great esteem not only for himself but also for Leto. The killing of the dragon is, consequently, the most critical moment in the process of establishing his dignity and position in Olympus. To sum up, the digression of the dragon demonstrates the compositional technique of 'a story within a story' and this technique focalises the importance of the dragon. The abrupt transition back to the main narrative emphasises the doublet of the dragon and Typhon, and also functions as a deliberative device, hinting at the broader perspective, but leaving the exact linking inexplicit. Structurally and thematically the hymn can indeed be described as a unity, the digression of the dragon being linked with the rest of the hymn by the devices of repetition and nesting or embedding that constitute the narrative technique. The digression of the dragon, in short, attains its greatest effect through the development and colouring of the motifs and their arrangement within the structure of the nested narrative.