著者
坂本 尚志
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
京都大学高等教育研究 (ISSN:13414836)
巻号頁・発行日
no.18, pp.53-63, 2012-12-01

This study aimed at clarifying the evaluation method used in the philosophy test for the French baccalaureate. Our approach did not consist of tackling the national curriculum, but in focusing on effective strategies used by students on a relatively lower level, through self-learning books, which allow the students to prepare for the test in a "pragmatic" way. The purpose for these students is simply to achieve a good score in the test. These books teach them what is important in composing copy for essays. The examination of these works has revealed the constituent elements of good copy: it is not about creativity or about philosophic originality, but a respect for the fixed argument form which the student has to assimilate during the year, as well as exact quotations from philosophic works, which means that memorization of such material is a key to success. The philosophy test in the French baccalaureate is thus an exercise which demands the art of memory, more than simple philosophic reasoning.
著者
筒井 琢磨 五十嵐 忠孝 坪内 良博
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.369-383, 1990-12

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。Two sets of data were obtained on Bangladesh villages : a genealogical table of inhabitants of one village, Gobarchitra; and survey data on two villages, Gobarchitra and Panchkitta, obtained by using questionnaires. By analyzing these data, we examined the high fertility of the two villages. First, we used the genealogical data on Gobarchitra. Using a patrilineal table, we tested the reproductivity of the male population. Over five generations, we checked four pairs of father-son generations. By several estimation methods, we obtained several values. Second, we used survey data on the two villages. Questionnaires asked all the married females about their birth histories. Compared with nation-wide data, two villages showed comparatively high fertility. There was a difference in fertility between the two villages, which appeared to result from a difference in mean age at first marriage. No other factors were identified. From cohort analysis, we concluded that those two villages had traditionally different levels of mean age at first marriage. As for the government's family planning program, neither village showed much effect. Generally, there is a high relation between the diffusion of a family planning program and education. Unfortunately, we could not examine this as we had no data on education.
著者
早瀬 篤
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
古代哲学研究室紀要 : hypothesis : the proceedings of the Department of Ancient Philosophy at Kyoto University (ISSN:0918161X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.44-73, 2004-03-15

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。
著者
五十嵐 忠孝
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.593-624, 1988-03

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。This report aims to establish the socialcultural contexts of fertility behavior common to ethnic Sundanese, who predominate in the Priangan Highlands, West Java, and have long been well-known for their very young marital age and high fertility, in the hope that an understanding of fertility-related social perceptions and cultural practices of a particular ethnic group will provide a basis for explaining regional and ethnic differences in levels and patterns of fertility in Indonesia. Here I will simply describe a number of institutions and practices involving the early stage of the reproductive period in women, i. e., from the attainment of adulthood to the consummation of the first marriage, which I observed during fieldwork in a Priangan Sundanese village. To compare social-cultural contexts of fertility, I also present a brief review of data on the fertility behavior of other Indonesian ethnic groups, particularly of ethnic Javanese, of which rather reliable data is available. Fertility-related practices in Sundanese society are distinct from those in Javanese society in many ways. For example : 1. A considerable proportion of rural Sundanese girls get married before menarche, indicating that marriageability for rural Sundanese girls predates menarche, even though rural Sundanese residents state that menarche signals the attainment of marriageable age. 2. Most marriages, including those of premenarcheal girls, take place at the girl's own wish, and are not arranged by parents or relatives. Almost all women interviewed showed a strong dislike for arranged marriage including "child marriage." 3. A younger sister is strictly forbidden to marry before an elder sister. This practice naturally leads to the virtual universality of marriage at an early age. 4. Consummation of marriage, even "premenarcheal marriage, " takes place at a very early stage. This means that divorce without consummation has rarely occurred, even though many first marriages have ended in divorce.
著者
元木 泰雄
出版者
京都大学
巻号頁・発行日
1995-01-23

新制・論文博士
著者
谷口 俊一
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.147-165, 2000

This article deals with the image of Japanese people serving in the army during the interwar period. To analyze this topic, I mainly used readers' columns of newspapers. At this time during which disarmament conference like the Washington Conference took place, Japanese armed forces became a target of criticism. As a consequence, the land forces reduced their armaments without holding an international conference. Critics about the armed forces increased while, on the other hand, the practice of conscription, among other things, was not questioned, and pacifist opinions were hardly heard either. Besides, soldiers having accomplished their military service were highly considered by certain people. Especially from the Manchurian Incident on, critics towards the army faded away. Japanese people became aware of the importance of supporting the army because everyone had a relative or a friend engaged in the army, with the result that many of them unwillingly started to get involved into the war efforts. In such a perspective, one can wonder about the fact that, among all critics formulated against the army after World War I, which clearly influenced the disarmament process in Japan, most ones have been made towards the army as an institution but surprisingly not towards the soldiers themselves. It is also interesting to notice that, rather than diminishing the army officers' strength, on the contrary, all those critics tended to reinforce their intentions of pursuing the militarization of the country. To a certain extent, we may conclude that all those critics might have helped to the constitution of a military state, which would also mean that japanese people failed in preventing the rise of militarism.
著者
藤井 進也
出版者
京都大学
巻号頁・発行日
2010-03-23

新制・課程博士

13 1 1 0 OA 尊攘論の時代

著者
高橋 秀直
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
京都大學文學部研究紀要 (ISSN:04529774)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.39-207, 2005-03-31

この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。
著者
北澤 直宏
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.2, pp.273-302, 2013-01-31

This paper aims at assessing the relationship between religion and politics in contemporary Vietnam, with a focus on Caodaism reorganization. After the Vietnam War, the socialist government regarded religion as a nuisance and carried out a retaliatory re-education program—to no effect. In the process of clamping down on anti-government movements by devotees, the Communist Party conducted in-depth analysis on Caodaism and decided to remove the religious dignitaries, in line with their policy of suppressing religious authorities. In 1979, with the cooperation of some dignitaries, the government promulgated the Caodai Decree 01, aimed at the dissolution all Caodaism organizations. The Caodai Holy See was placed under the control of the state and changes were imposed; however, many branch temples subsequently reverted to selfmanagement. There are three possible reasons for this: first, the Holy See had lost all authority and influence over the branch temples; second, branch temples ignored the modified Holy See as the latter had obeyed the socialist government and betrayed Caodaism Law; third, there was no consistent policy in each province. These phenomena rattled the Communist Party, which feared its own collapse, in an echo of events in the Soviet Union. It thus embarked on a plan in 1992 to reorganize Caodaism, with the aim of occupying and controlling branch temples through "educated" dignitaries. While it is certain that Caodaism was officially recognized in 1997, this did not signal the beginning of religious freedom. On the contrary, it only reflected the Communist Party's policy to control religious opponents by authorizing religions.
著者
前川 玲子
出版者
京都大学
巻号頁・発行日
2006-03

平成16-17年度科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C2))研究成果報告書 課題番号:16520146 研究代表者:前川玲子(京都大学環境学研究科助教授)
著者
増田 玲一郎
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
京都大学文学部哲学研究室紀要 : Prospectus
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.1-12, 1998-12-01

長い間,指図されなくても自分で判断し行動する,気の利いたコンピュータが求められている。人間のように思考する人工知能は,まだ夢の世界の存在である。他方,最近のソフトウェア製品は,その多機能を簡単に利用できるような工夫がなされていて,気を利かしているつもりらしい。しかし,私見ながら,この工夫は上手く行っていないように思われる。困難は技術的な問題ではなく,'気を利かす'という働きそれ自体にあると思われる。気を利かせるべき状況で,人間はどのように振る舞っていて,コンピュータはどのように振る舞うべきか,それらに関する問題をこの論文で考察する。気を利かせる働きの重要な部分は予断に基づく。コンピュータは予断するべきではないであろう。あくまで人間が主体的に判断し,コンピュータは,人間の判断行為を支援することに専念すべきであろう。
著者
赤枝 香奈子
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.83-100, 2002-12-25

Recent studies on sexuality have deconstructed `Seiai' (or romantic love) on an analytical basis that treats sexuality and love separately, focusing mainly on the former. Homosexuality has also become a common subject in contemporary sexuality studies. In this paper, I investigate intimate relationships between women of modern Japan, including those containing lesbianism. However I do not discuss such relationships as a matter of general sexuality, as the reality of the relationships shared among women of the day is not yet well known. IVIale homosexuality in modern Japan has been made considerably clear. On the other hand, we do not yet know how the concept of lesbianism in modern Japan was formed, how it functioned, and what types of relationships were associated with it. In this paper, I examine discourses about intimate relationships between women from the end of the Meiji era to the beginning of the Taisho era. I discuss what types of relationships are indicated and that the discourses between these women are really over sexuality. At the beginning of the investigation, I look at some close relationships between women described in the journal Safuran. Safuran was founded by I~azue Otake, a member of an earlier journal called Seito. Seito and its leading figure Raicho Hiratsuka were oriented towards heterosexuality. We cannot define the close relationships found in Safuran simply as the same as the homosexual relationships found today. I argue that the process of building relationships was understood as something sexual in accordance to their reference to western sexology. The discourses in the period mentioned above pay much attention to intimate relationships between women. A double suicide committed by two graduates of a girl's school pulled the trigger. People came to call such relationships `Dousei-no Ai' (love between two people of the same gender), and tended to recognize it as a matter of sexual desire. Nevertheless, it was `excessively-radical friendships' that gained more attention within the discourses. In other words, when criticizing women's homosexuality, authorized commentators were eager to classify friendship under the dichotomy of normaUabnormal, while the topic of sexuality was disregarded. What they then put stress on was to mould women in socially acceptable oriented affection.