- 桃山学院大学人間科学 (ISSN:09170227)
- vol.19, pp.1-90, 2000-07-31
The European mathematics exists as a science and the fundamental tools of thchnology. On the other hand, the Japanese mathematics (Wasan) did not as a science but as an art. However, the Japanese were by no means wanting in scientific spirit. The warriors (Samurai) of the Tokugawa Shogunate were strongly endowed with a zealous yearning for knowledge of the navigation at the Nagasaki Navy College, which was founded in 1855. They were taught and trained by Dutch officers with severity. Some of them were especially diligent, namely Yatabori, Ono, Enomoto, Akamatsu, Nakamuda, Tsukamoto, Sawa, Ban, and Hida. After a few years, they had become the leading members of the Tokugawa Navy. They understood that mathematical thinking was at the foundation of European civilization. Indeed, their mathematical abilities advanced with rapid strides. But, Katsu was a dull student and could not become interested in mathematics. A certain number of Dutch mathematical and astronomical works were in the possession at the Astronomical Board of the Shogunate (Bakufu Tenmonkata). To read these works, the Institute of Occidental Culture (Bansho Chosho) was founded in 1855 by the Shogunate. In this Institute, K. Kanda was the first professor of the department of mathematics. In 1866, Dr. S. Yanagawa was elected to a professorship of this Institute. Kanda wrote "Introduction to Arithmetic" and Yanagawa wrote "How to Use for Arithmetic" in 1857. A friendship between Kanda and Yanagawa continued until Yanagawa's death in 1870. Yamamoto, Sahara, Suzuki, Nagahiro Enomoto, and T. Kikuchi are all graduates of this Institute. Arithmetic was also taught at the Yokohama French College, which was founded in 1864. Zinbo is a graduate of this college. The mathematicians of the old Japanese school (Wasanka) took pains to solve the many difficult problems, but could not discovered the general method of a solution. Ono and Yanagi was the well-known Japanese mathematicians, but they made an effort to learn the European mathematics. In 1868, the political change of the Restoration took place. The leaders of the New Meiji Government were not familiar with Occidental culture. Most of them were terrorists with the exception of Omura. For the most part, the Meiji Government had been conducted by the warriors intelligentsia of the Shogunate. The teaters at the Navy College, Military Academy and University College (Daigaku Nanko) were mostly old warriors of the Shogunate. In 1877, the Tokyo Mathematical Society was founded. The first president was Kanda. One half of the organization's members were mostly old Shogunate warriors and well-known old Japanese mathematicians. The rest were the second-class mathematicians.