著者
高橋 ひとみ/衞藤 隆 衞藤 隆
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
人間文化研究 (ISSN:21889031)
巻号頁・発行日
no.2, pp.193-210, 2015-03-23

It is proposed that near-vision acuity tests be conducted in kindergartens and nurseries throughout the country and that infant medical checkups should also be carried out. This will allow early detection of and timely treatment for children with amblyopia. The younger the age at which these tests are carried out, the more effective they will be. If amblyopia is detected and treated by the age of 3, most children will be able to complete their treatment before reaching school age. This will enable them to begin their school life without being burdened by poor eyesight, and contribute to a society in which all children have equal access to compulsory education. To bring about that end, the introduction of "reliable" visual acuity tests over a short time is necessary. I considered the best form of visual acuity test from the standpoint of both the infant to be tested and that of the teacher carrying out the test. In order to ensure "reliability", it is necessary to use the Landolt Ring eye-mark, which meets definitions of eyesight. In addition, a picture-based eye-mark is recommended, as it is more likely to gain the understanding of the infant being tested. Avisual acuity test will be more effective if infants have already grown accustomed to the Landolt Ring during play. This picture book was devised with that aim in mind.
著者
山本 順一
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学経済経営論集 (ISSN:02869721)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.23-64, 2013-10-31

This paper's content is generally based on the speech held at the 2012 annual conference of the Japan Society of Library and Information Science(JSLIS). Its intent is to let the colleagues studying and teaching library and information science be aware that they have to understand the real and correct relations among a variety of library operations and copyright system. Two recent incidents happened closely around the author urged to write this paper. The one is related the dealing of some photos taken around 1900 in the United States, when a young scholar's writing a textbook. The other is concerned with video theater carried out at public libraries in this country. The author would like to point out misunderstandings widely spread among lots of Japanese librarians and library teachers. At the very end of this paper, a nasty anonymous letter sent in February 2013 to the JSLIS and the author is showed.
著者
阪口 祐介
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学社会学論集 (ISSN:02876647)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.47-68, 2016-02-25

Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the negative opinion to nuclear power plant has increased and the political debates over the pros and cons of nuclear energy has been activated. This paper attempts to reveal empirically the social determinants of attitudes towards nuclear energy. We focus on generation, gender, and social stratification as the determinants, and examine for the value mediated mechanism. Previous researches have indicated that women tend to have negative opinion to nuclear power and young people tend to have positive opinion to that. In this paper, we assume that these gender and generation differences are mediated by the values. For example, it is expected that women tend to be egalitarian, and egalitarian tends to have negative opinion to nuclear power. In order to examine the value mediated mechanism concerning generation, gender, and social stratification, we do analysis by using structural equation modeling. The data is "The Public Opinion Survey on Internationalization and Political Participation of Citizens" that was conducted in November 2013 by the nationwide sampling mail survey. The findings reveal that the political distrust and the egalitarianism had a strong influence on the antinuclear orientation. Concerning the value mediated mechanism, we found out that the gender difference was mediated by the political distrust and the egalitarianism. This results means that women tend to be political distrust and egalitarianism, for that reason they tend to have the antinuclear orientation. We also found out that the generation difference was mediated by the political apathy. Concerning social stratification, high income people tend to be antiegalitarianism and for that reason they tend to support for the nuclear power.
著者
高橋 ひとみ/衞藤 隆 衞藤 隆
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学総合研究所紀要 (ISSN:1346048X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.1, pp.1-18, 2015-07-27

The visual acuity test in a kindergarten and the nursery school is neglected. We can relieve a child becoming amblyopia by early detection, early treatment if we carry out the near visual acuity test in kindergartens, nursery schools of the whole country and an infant medical checkup. The curative effect is big approximately low age. We think that children can finish the amblyopia training if we can detect amblyopia at 3 years old before compulsory education begins. And we think that children can start school life without a burden by the poor eyesight. We hope at the society where all children can enjoy compulsory education fairly. We must perform the visual acuity test of the infant. To that end, the enforcement of the visual acuity test that "is reliable" for "a short time" is necessary. We devised a picture book and the visual acuity test kit. An infant can easily answer it that he is usually used to Landolt ring in a picture book. We do not perform it as an exercise of the visual acuity tests and hope Landolt ring to fit it while being fun, and playing.
著者
福井 幸男
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学人間科学 (ISSN:09170227)
巻号頁・発行日
no.40, pp.1-41, 2011-03-30

Sen no Rikyu (1522-1591) was one of the well-known founders of the traditional tea ceremony (Sado) in medieval Japan. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598) ordered Sen no Rikyu to commit ritual suicide (seppuku) in February, Tensho 19 (1591), because he was the general who won the final victory in the military conflicts among the Samurai and unified medieval Japan. Various opinions have been offered concerning the reasons for Sen no Rikyu's death. However, no firm hypothesis has yet been reached. The author has critically reviewed a large number of historical materials and theories regarding this episode to try to elucidate the truth. The official announcement of the Toyotomi Hideyoshi regime gave as the principal reasons for Sen no Rikyu's punishment, was his lese majesty toward both General Toyotomi himself and the emperor, together with his unreasonable valuation and trade in tea-ceremony items. Sen's lese majesty charge also included his construction of an overly splendid gate to the Daitokuji Temple in Kyoto, and his order to place a wooden sculpture of himself on the gate. However, the author has managed to locate many descriptions from sources about the miscellaneous circumstances of his death that differ quite considerably from information found in other cases of ritual suicides. Using these idiosyncratic materials, the author seeks to further elucidate the truth about the causes of Sen no Rikyu's seppuku.
著者
増田 忠信
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
人間文化研究 (ISSN:21889031)
巻号頁・発行日
no.1, pp.97-125, 2014-11-28

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the starting point of Japanese people's morality.Moral standards, which are historically constructed, provide us with a measure of which behavioural patterns are acceptable and which are not.The transition from tsuwamono (soldiers) to bushi (warriors) created a peculiar value standard for Japanese people, leading to the so-called Bushido.Reflecting on the pre-Bushido period in Japan can help to understand themselves better. The framework of this paper is as follows : First, I consider what was regarded as evil in the Heian era by examining Vol. 29 of the Konjaku Monogatari.Second, I investigate the word tsuwamono in the Konjaku Monogatari and Shomonki.The way that this word is employed in those two texts suggests that people in the Heian era regarded Tsuwamono ambivalently, as newcomers. Third, comparing the Konjaku Monogatari Vol.25 with the Shomonki, I examine Taira no Masakado's Rebellion (939-940), which is a typical example of the transition from tsuwamono to bushi.I conclude that tsuwamono, originally related to the common people through land or locality, became a newly-influential power by their ability to pacify rebellions. Their transformation into bushi was the result. In the world of Heian aristocrats, the common people were not held to have the same moral sense that noble-born members of the Imperial Court enjoyed. Accordingly, they would be willing to join a rebellion if the time and circumstances were right. Since the gap between tsuwamono and bushi and the common people in their attitudes to work, rebellion, religion and other matters was so small, it became possible for them to hold a similar moral sense. As a result, from the second half of the Heian era onward Japanese people began to make their moral decisions based on a similar set of attitudes to those found in the tsuwamono no michi and, later, the Way of the Samurai.
著者
細井 浩志
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学総合研究所紀要 (ISSN:1346048X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.45-62, 2008-12-18

Ancient Japanese accepted the notion of heaven from China. Some researchers say there were systematic heavenly myths before this notion. But lords of the YAMATO regime, that ruled Wakoku at that time, had no systematic mythology except concerning the sun, the moon, and certain individual stars. One important reason is that the ancient Japanese until the Yayoi era had no need for an almanac, because there was no government as such to impose the use of a common calendar over the large Japanese archipelago. Another reason is that ancient Japanese didn't sail on the open seas, thus they did not require star navigation. From the third century, a Japanese government designed to rule over a large area was being set up, and it was then that they accepted the Chinese almanac. Accordingly, they didn't develop an original astronomy or related heavenly myths. Nevertheless, those who often sailed on the open seas, for example those who lived in northern kyushu, or naturalized Japanese were interested in the stars.
著者
青野 正明
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学総合研究所紀要 (ISSN:1346048X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.285-306, 2008-03-18

When the Japanese Government-General of Korea began carrying out its Rural Promotion Movement in the first half of the 1930s, one of the Movement's key elements was the agriculture-first ideology of "Nohonshugi ". In this paper I focus on one of the more spiritualistic aspects of that ideology, "Piety and Ancestor Worship" (敬神崇祖). From it, the official leadership of Korea's agricultural villages became aware of the need for a tool to strengthen village cohesiveness. I suggest that the officially-sponsored system of village rites, a means of strengthening social control in the villages, grew out of this awareness.Throwing light on such hitherto neglected facts as these will help clarify the Japanese colonial government's shrine policy during these years, and is therefore a significant focus of research.
著者
シュミット・クラウディア・カロリネ
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
国際文化論集 (ISSN:09170219)
巻号頁・発行日
no.47, pp.259-295, 2013-03-28

Samurai is an important genre in Japanese entertainment media, such as books, television, and even manga. It has been a genre especially for male target groups for a long time, but during the last decade, there has been a tendency for samurai manga to focus on female target groups. In my research, I focus on the difference between the image of samurai in manga for male and female target groups, and afterwards I describe the possible social reasons for those differences. For the analysis I chose Okita Soji from Watanabe Taeko's Manga "Kaze hikaru" as an example for a samurai described for a female target group, and for a male target group, I chose Miyamoto Musashi from Inoue Takehiko's "Vagabond" as a representative samurai. I mainly follow Yomota Inuhiko's method as presented in his work "Manga genron", adding a focus on the keywords social life, love and life as swordfighter, especially analysing problems and solutions concerning these themes. Through the analysis I found some interesting answers. While the image of Okita in "Kaze hikaru" obviously is adapted to classical genres for female readers (the keywords love and social life are the main points and the story itself is similar to high-school campus stories), Miyamoto's description focuses on his work of building a strong self, especially by countless action scenes. The two represent a different ideal of masculinity, on the one side showing an Okita who is influenced by the typical effeminate male aesthetics of Japanese male pop idols-an image mainly created by aiming towards female fans. And on the other side there is a Miyamoto representing aclassical warrior image, which can be interpreted as a counter flow to the new male aesthetics. Yet, Miyamoto's warrior journeys and his life far from civilization can also be seen as criticism of young men's reaction to the growing demands of their working lives, but also in their daily lives as some kind of escapism from their daily lives. In contrast to Miyamoto, Okita shows an exaggerated image of loyalty, especially to his troops' leaders and his protegee, a girl dressed up as boy who joines his samurai troop. Especially his relationship to his protegee shows the uncertainty of young women concerning gender constructs and shows the desire of women to take part in social life or even to create history. In summary, it is obvious that the image of the samurai is fit to the gender of the target groups and it seems as if it gives the reader an entertaining possibility to compensate for the limits of everyday live.
著者
松村 昌廣
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
人間文化研究 (ISSN:21889031)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.123-138, 2016-02-26

This study will explore the relevance of the so-called Prime Directive as found in Star Trek, a very popular U.S. T.V. science fiction drama, for comparative political and area studies, with a major focus on the application of it to advanced Western modern states' intervention in the developing world after multi-ethnic empires. The paper will elucidate the directive, followed by an interim definition of "advancedness" and "backwardedness". The analytical focus will be placed on why such intervention will cause unexpected and undesired resultants that will further lead to intractable complication and entanglement later. Then the work will argue for the wisdom of "divide and rule" and warn of being driven by moralized commitment to intruding as modernizer and to missionary zeal to interfere as democratizer.
著者
福井 幸男
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学人間科学 (ISSN:09170227)
巻号頁・発行日
no.42, pp.37-91, 2012-03-27

Sen no Rikyu (1522-1591) was one of the well-known founders of the traditional tea ceremony (sado) in medieval Japan. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598) ordered Sen no Rikyu to commit ritual suicide (seppuku) in February, Tensho 19 (1591), because he was the general who won the final victory in the military conflicts among the samurai and unified medieval Japan. Various opinions have been offered concerning the reasons for Sen no Rikyu's death. However, no firm conclusion has yet been reached. The author has critically reviewed a large number of historical materials and theories regarding this episode to try to elucidate the truth. The official announcement of the Toyotomi Hideyoshi regime gave as the principal reasons for Sen no Rikyu's punishment , his lese majesty toward both General Toyotomi himself and the emperor, together with his unreasonable valuation and trade in tea-ceremony items. The lese majesty charge also included his construction of an overly splendid gate to the Daitokuji Temple in Kyoto, and his order to place a wooden figure of himself on the gate. However, the author has managed to locate many descriptions from sources about the circumstances of his death that differ quite considerably from information found in other cases of ritual suicides. Especially, the author notes the following ; (1) the strict guard of Rikyu's home by 3,000 soldiers before his death to prevent his being rescued by influential feudal lords (daimyo), and (2) the crucifixion of Rikyu's figure and exposure of his head at Ichijyo-Modoribashi Bridge, Kyoto. From these idiosyncratic materials, the author seeks to further elucidate the truth about the causes of Sen no Rikyu's seppuku. The author infers the cause of Rikyu's death as follows. General Toyotomi Hideyoshi had planned to invade the Korean Peninsula after the unification of all Japan. Ishida Mitsunari, who was one of the most influential vassals of Hideyoshi, falsely told him that Rikyu had opposed the invasion, in collaboration with major influential feudal lords in East Japan, especially Tokugawa Ieyasu and Date Masamune, in a room for the tea ceremony. Hideyoshi was frightened by Mitsunari's slander, and got angry with Rikyu. Therefore, Hideyoshi ordered the seppuku, and these idiosyncratic matters concerning his death were a tacit warning to each feudal lord to collaborate in the invasion.
著者
島田 克彦/林 美帆 林 美帆
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学総合研究所紀要 (ISSN:1346048X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.19-33, 2015-12-22

The scope of interest of this research is : 1. That researchers of humanity and social sciences in the broad sense share not only the research results but also the documents which postulate the results, and establish a humanity and social sciences society where researchers approximate the subject of research based on documents. 2. To pursue the possibility that not only researchers but citizens as well take part in intellectual activities by accessing primary sources, investigating the truth about regional history, and sharing experiences in the region including large-scale natural disasters and pollution cases. To work especially on the second theme, it is the role as well as the responsibility of researchers of humanity and social sciences to clarify the value of documents which society must share. This study discusses these themes by considering the research history of urban society in modern Osaka and industrial reconstruction in the pollution-damaged area in Nishiyodogawa as a case study.
著者
藤森 かよこ
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
英米評論 (ISSN:09170200)
巻号頁・発行日
no.21, pp.55-82, 2007-03-15

What is called "American feminism" in this article means liberal feminismor radical feminism. Many critics, especially French ones such as ElizabethBadinter and Emmanuel Todd, underestimate American feminism in the pointthat its pro-violence tendency hinders feminism from its mature developmentand further prevalence. This article does not share their view. As explainedlater, the pro-violence attitude of American feminism might be able to present aprototype of "a citizen of the world" in the coming (?) borderless, post-nationstatesworld promoted by globalization. Here "globalization" does not mean thelatest stage of American imperialism. Here globalization is "the process of increasinginterconnectedness between societies such that events in one part ofthe world more and more have effects on peoples and societies far away."It is true that not a few of American feminists regard violence as one of theiroptions to protect themselves. American radical feminists such as Naomi Wolfand D. A. Clarke assert that women should not hesitate to counterattack againstdomestic violence and other sexual violence. Paxton Quigley recommendswomen's owing guns against crimes. Martha McCaughey, a physical feminist, advocateswomen's going into training in martial arts for self-defense. The NationalOrganization for Women (NOW), which is a representative of liberal feminists inUSA, is positive about woman soldiers' service in war battles for national defense.Yet they are not especially pro-violent, because their attitude is necessarilyresulted from American core values.Some American feminists regard their position as "militia" or contemporarycitizen soldiers. Militia is a military force that engages in a rebel or terrorist activitiesin opposition to a regular army. Militiamen, ordinary people with theirown guns used for their hunting for food (never for pleasure) won the victory inthe American War of Independence, though some researches say that it is nothingbut a myth, not a historical fact. Myth or fact, in this point, militia symbolizesAmerican core values : freedom, independence, individualism, equality and democracy.Once American people feel that their "unalienable Rights, that amongthese are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" are threatened by others,governments or any organizations or individuals, they might be ready to use theirown weapons. Weapon ownership is a key aspect of citizenship under democraticgovernment for some American people. They believe that the Constitution ofthe United States of America supports their view.Certainly Amendment 2 of Bill of Rights enacted in 1791 says "A well regulatedMilitia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the peopleto keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." The survey of ABC News in2002 shows that seventy three percent of the American citizens think thatAmendment 2 guarantees their right to keep and bear weapons for self defense.American people against gun control are not only what antigun critics call "gunenthusiasts." According to one research, gun owners believe that society is aviolent place; so they prepare for the possibility of doing violence themselves ;they view this position to be the most responsible one they have to take in relationto their own safety ; they are also aware that many oppressive governmentsdo not permit firearms to be owned by the general people, because gun ownershipcan potentially threaten the government through a citizens' revolt. SomeAmerican feminists share this view with gun owners.This article does not mean that American feminists' pro violence attitudeshould be positively considered because their views are resulted from Americancore values. Even if American feminists regard themselves as militiawomen,contemporary citizen soldiers, such kind of attitude can be called caricatural.There is a hypothesis that the peripheral members in a given society try to moreradically embody the society's most sweeping ideologies than the central members.American feminists who try to be regular citizens, never "second citizens",may be more stimulated to achieve American core values as completely as possible.We should notice that this kind of caricatural American feminists providesus with a prototype of a citizen of the coming world developed by globalization,where order in world politics emerges not from a balance of power among nationstatesbut from the interactions between many layers of governing arrangements.Nation-states demand its constituency to be subject to their policies andlaws, and in exchange for its subordination, they are supposed to offer their peoplebenefits and protection. But history has been showing the examples thatnation-states could be the worst oppressor and violator for people. However,globlization might permit people to traffic the many layers of governing institutions,depending on their own needs and profits. Then, nation-states will be ableto be optional, not fatal.The political philosophy of the coming, globalized world is the most radicalform of republicanism, also called civic humanism. The coming world might beable to be the most expanded republic, a new world order governed by and forthe people. Then, people will not be able to rely on nation-states as their protectors,if people don't want state interference. In other words, future citizens ofthe world must be ready to be citizen soldiers, caricatured form of militia,"American feminists." As citizens of a republic, American feminists who premisethat they can't trust the government and its agents, do not invite the state to beresponsible for their safety, even though dependency is so seductive.Some people wonder if such a world can be the greatest prison, the mostelaborate "Matrix" controlled by invisible power. Whether the biggest republic,the new world order may be utopian dystopian, a pro-violent, pro-counterattackAmerican feminist is a prototype of a citizen of the post-nation-states world.
著者
小笠原 匡/和栗 珠里 和栗 珠里
出版者
桃山学院大学
雑誌
桃山学院大学総合研究所紀要 (ISSN:1346048X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.177-195, 2015-03-27

The joint study project of Momoyama Gakuin University titled "The Establishment and Development of Masked Comedy in Japan and in Italy during the Medieval and Early Modern Period and its Contemporary Practice" has been developing a series of researches and discussions on the roots of masked comedy through comparative study of Kyogen and Commedia dell'Arte. Both Kyogen and Commedia dell'Arte have long histories through which they have developed into the sophisticated styles as we know them today. On the other hand, their original spirit and dynamism has been lost or diminished. Our inquiry into the primitive forms of Kyogen and Commedia dell'Arte will hopefully contribute to restoring this spirit and dynamism to the contemporary theater. Kyogen in general is a genre of comic play whose main characters are Tarokaja , a quick-witted servant, and his master. In this point the parallelism of Kyogen and Commedia dell'Arte is often mentioned. But our interest regards another aspect of Kyogen in Nogaku : Sanbaso in Shikisanban. There are many mysterious sides to Sanbaso, probably because it maintains older elements than other Kyogen repertories. Sanbaso consists of dance rather than the form of a play and is composed of two parts : Momino-dan (stamping segment) in which the kyogen actor dances and sings rhythmically without amask; Suzu-no-dan (bell segment) in which he puts on the Kokushikijo (black old man) mask and dances solemnly with a bell tree in one hand. It is generally considered that Momi-no-dan is a dance of a young man cultivating the land and Suzu-no-dan is that of an elder sowing or planting the crop. We suggest a different interpretation. The black mask may imply a woman rather than a suntanned peasant as is generally conceived. In fact, traditional forms of Sanbaso in some regions include dances with female masks. It is evident that Shikisanban has its origin in old shamanic rituals. Shamans are often women, a mystic existence with the ability of giving birth to new lives. In the course of time the shamanic role of Sanbaso may have been taken from women and given to men who need some initiation in order to go into a trance. Momi-no-dan might be this initiation and Suzu-no-dan might be a dance of a transgender shaman. And for him a mask is necessary to turn into `something else'. It is noticed that Sanbaso derives also from the festivals of Matarajin. Matarajin is a guardian deity of Amida Buddha and of the performing arts and has many other aspects such as Kojin, Dosojin and Marebito. The worship of this deity is a mysticism and its festivals held by secret societies were very carnivalesque. The Hatsukayasai festival of Motsu-ji temple is a relic of Matarajin worship. The Ennen-no-mai performed at the end of this festival is a dance with a black old woman mask very similar to the Kokushikijo mask. Like Kyogen Commedia dell'Arte derives from old rituals and festivities, especially carnival, mystery plays and Renaissance theatrical arts. In Venice in the first half of the 16th century, the place and time of the birth of Commedia dell'Arte, a kind of performing art called momaria was greatly in fashion. In momaria there were a number of symbolic elements of pagan tradition which were also common to carnival festivities and mystery plays. Above all the presence of buffoonish characters is notable. The most important character of Commedia dell'Arte is Arlecchino, a typical buffone (fool). It goes without saying that the fool once had a shamanic role. Moreover, Arlecchino is thought to have his origin in a chthonian spirit which once had been a pagan deity (Dionisus, Hermes, Odin, etc.) and transformed into a demonic existence in the Christian era. He even has a hermaphrodite aspect. In fact, every attribute of Arlecchino, from the black mask and the slapstick to the acrobatic movements, is much more significant than is seen on the surface. Thus, we find many similarities between the black old man in Sanbaso and Arlecchino in Commedia dell'Arte. At the base of these performances lie people's awe and prayers toward nature, which has almost been forgotten in modern society.